Current Cataloging Includes:
• 56 Scripture Chapter Citations
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• 1 Support Source
- Flavius Josephus Antiquities of the Jews - Book XX: Chapter 2 (93 A.D.)
• Marriage covenant given to mankind in the garden (affirmed in Matt. 19:4-6; Mark 10:6-8; I Cor. 6:15-17; & Eph. 5:30-31)
...(18)And the LORD God said, it is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him. (19)And out of the ground the LORD God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof. (20)And Adam gave names to all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.
(21)And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; (22)And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.
(23)And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. (24)Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.
(25)And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed...
• First recorded act of polygamy: Lamech (of Cain's bloodline) takes to himself two wives: Adah & Zillah
...(16)And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden.
(17)And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bare Enoch: and he builded a city, and called the name of the city, after the name of his son, Enoch. (18)And unto Enoch was born Irad: and Irad begat Mehujael: and Mehujael begat Methusael: and Methusael begat Lamech. (19)And Lamech took unto him two wives: the name of the one was Adah, and the name of the other Zillah. (20)And Adah bare Jabal: he was the father of such as dwell in tents, and of such as have cattle. (21)And his brother's name was Jubal: he was the father of all such as handle the harp and organ. (22)And Zillah, she also bare Tubalcain, an instructer of every artificer in brass and iron: and the sister of Tubalcain was Naamah.
(23)And Lamech said unto his wives, Adah and Zillah, Hear my voice; ye wives of Lamech, hearken unto my speech: for I have slain a man to my wounding, and a young man to my hurt. (24)If Cain shall be avenged sevenfold, truly Lamech seventy and sevenfold.
(25)And Adam knew his wife again; and she bare a son, and called his name Seth: For God, said she, hath appointed me another seed instead of Abel, whom Cain slew. (26)And to Seth, to him also there was born a son; and he called his name Enos: then began men to call upon the name of the LORD...
• God promises Abram a heir, out of his own bowels (i.e. through his own wife, Sarai) (Genesis 15:4)
...(1)After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying, Fear not, Abram: I am thy shield, and thy exceeding great reward.
(2)And Abram said, Lord GOD, what wilt thou give me, seeing I go childless, and the steward of my house is this Eliezer of Damascus? (3)And Abram said, Behold, to me thou hast given no seed: and, lo, one born in my house is mine heir. (4)And, behold, the word of the LORD came unto him, saying, This shall not be thine heir; but he that shall come forth out of thine own bowels shall be thine heir. (5)And he brought him forth abroad, and said, Look now toward heaven, and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them: and he said unto him, So shall thy seed be.
(6)And he believed in the LORD; and he counted it to him for righteousness. (7)And he said unto him, I am the LORD that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land to inherit it...
• Abram, however, listens to Sarai instead, and takes Hagar as a second wife (Genesis 16:2-3)
• Soon after conceiving, Hagar, the Egyptian, begins to despise Sarai (Genesis 16:44)
...(1)Now Sarai Abram's wife bare him no children: and she had an handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar.
(2)And Sarai said unto Abram, Behold now, the LORD hath restrained me from bearing: I pray thee, go in unto my maid; it may be that I may obtain children by her. And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai.
(3)And Sarai Abram's wife took Hagar her maid the Egyptian, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her to her husband Abram to be his wife. (4)And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived: and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes. (5)And Sarai said unto Abram, My wrong is upon thee: I have given my maid into thy bosom; and when she saw that she had conceived, I was despised in her eyes: the LORD judge between me and thee. (6)But Abram said unto Sarai, Behold, thy maid is in thy hand; do to her as it pleaseth thee. And when Sarai dealt hardly with her, she fled from her face.
(7)And the angel of the LORD found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur. (8)And he said, Hagar, Sarai's maid, whence camest thou? and whither wilt thou go? And she said, I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai. (9)And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands. (10)And the angel of the LORD said unto her, I will multiply thy seed exceedingly, that it shall not be numbered for multitude. (11)And the angel of the LORD said unto her, Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son, and shalt call his name Ishmael; because the LORD hath heard thy affliction. (12)And he will be a wild man; his hand will be against every man, and every man's hand against him; and he shall dwell in the presence of all his brethren.
(13)And she called the name of the LORD that spake unto her, Thou God seest me: for she said, Have I also here looked after him that seeth me? (14)Wherefore the well was called Beerlahairoi; behold, it is between Kadesh and Bered. (15)And Hagar bare Abram a son: and Abram called his son's name, which Hagar bare, Ishmael. (16)And Abram was fourscore and six years old, when Hagar bare Ishmael to Abram...
• God keeps His word to Abraham, in his heir being conceived out of his own (i.e. Sarah's) bowels (Genesis 21:1-3)
• Further conflict erupts between Sarah and Hagar; Abraham caught in the middle (Genesis 21:9-14)
...(1)And the LORD visited Sarah as he had said, and the LORD did unto Sarah as he had spoken. (2)For Sarah conceived, and bare Abraham a son in his old age, at the set time of which God had spoken to him. (3)And Abraham called the name of his son that was born unto him, whom Sarah bare to him, Isaac. (4)And Abraham circumcised his son Isaac being eight days old, as God had commanded him. (5)And Abraham was an hundred years old, when his son Isaac was born unto him. (6)And Sarah said, God hath made me to laugh, so that all that hear will laugh with me. (7)And she said, Who would have said unto Abraham, that Sarah should have given children suck? for I have born him a son in his old age. (8)And the child grew, and was weaned: and Abraham made a great feast the same day that Isaac was weaned.
(9)And Sarah saw the son of Hagar the Egyptian, which she had born unto Abraham, mocking. (10)Wherefore she said unto Abraham, Cast out this bondwoman and her son: for the son of this bondwoman shall not be heir with my son, even with Isaac. (11)And the thing was very grievous in Abraham's sight because of his son. (12)And God said unto Abraham, Let it not be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and because of thy bondwoman; in all that Sarah hath said unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall thy seed be called. (13)And also of the son of the bondwoman will I make a nation, because he is thy seed.
(14)And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and took bread, and a bottle of water, and gave it unto Hagar, putting it on her shoulder, and the child, and sent her away: and she departed, and wandered in the wilderness of Beersheba.
(15)And the water was spent in the bottle, and she cast the child under one of the shrubs. (16)And she went, and sat her down over against him a good way off, as it were a bowshot: for she said, Let me not see the death of the child. And she sat over against him, and lift up her voice, and wept. (17)And God heard the voice of the lad; and the angel of God called to Hagar out of heaven, and said unto her, What aileth thee, Hagar? fear not; for God hath heard the voice of the lad where he is. (18)Arise, lift up the lad, and hold him in thine hand; for I will make him a great nation.
(19)And God opened her eyes, and she saw a well of water; and she went, and filled the bottle with water, and gave the lad drink. (20)And God was with the lad; and he grew, and dwelt in the wilderness, and became an archer. (21)And he dwelt in the wilderness of Paran: and his mother took him a wife out of the land of Egypt...
• First Biblical record of a husband having a "concubine" (secondary status wife) (Genesis 22:24)
• Interesting to note that Nahor -- Abraham's brother -- was the next recorded person to have a polygamous marriage
• (...wonder who he learned the practice from?)
...(15)And the angel of the LORD called unto Abraham out of heaven the second time, (16)And said, By myself have I sworn, saith the LORD, for because thou hast done this thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son: (17)That in blessing I will bless thee, and in multiplying I will multiply thy seed as the stars of the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea shore; and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies; (18)And in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast obeyed my voice.
(19)So Abraham returned unto his young men, and they rose up and went together to Beersheba; and Abraham dwelt at Beersheba.
(20)And it came to pass after these things, that it was told Abraham, saying, Behold, Milcah, she hath also born children unto thy brother Nahor; (21)Huz his firstborn, and Buz his brother, and Kemuel the father of Aram, (22)And Chesed, and Hazo, and Pildash, and Jidlaph, and Bethuel. (23)And Bethuel begat Rebekah: these eight Milcah did bear to Nahor, Abraham's brother. (24)And his concubine, whose name was Reumah, she bare also Tebah, and Gaham, and Thahash, and Maachah...
• Sarah passes away, shortly after Isaac marries Rebekah (Genesis 22:67)
...(62)And Isaac came from the way of the well Lahairoi; for he dwelt in the south country. (63)And Isaac went out to meditate in the field at the eventide: and he lifted up his eyes, and saw, and, behold, the camels were coming. (64)And Rebekah lifted up her eyes, and when she saw Isaac, she lighted off the camel. (65)For she had said unto the servant, What man is this that walketh in the field to meet us? And the servant had said, It is my master: therefore she took a vail, and covered herself. (66)And the servant told Isaac all things that he had done. (67)And Isaac brought her into his mother Sarah's tent, and took Rebekah, and she became his wife; and he loved her: and Isaac was comforted after his mother's death.
• Abraham marries Keturah (after Sarah's passing); Hagar and Keturah referred to as concubine (Genesis 25:1,6)
(1)Then again Abraham took a wife, and her name was Keturah. (2)And she bare him Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah. (3)And Jokshan begat Sheba, and Dedan. And the sons of Dedan were Asshurim, and Letushim, and Leummim. (4)And the sons of Midian; Ephah, and Epher, and Hanoch, and Abida, and Eldaah. All these were the children of Keturah.
(5)And Abraham gave all that he had unto Isaac. (6)But unto the sons of the concubines, which Abraham had, Abraham gave gifts, and sent them away from Isaac his son, while he yet lived, eastward, unto the east country.
(7)And these are the days of the years of Abraham's life which he lived, an hundred threescore and fifteen years. (8)Then Abraham gave up the ghost, and died in a good old age, an old man, and full of years; and was gathered to his people. (9)And his sons Isaac and Ishmael buried him in the cave of Machpelah, in the field of Ephron the son of Zohar the Hittite, which is before Mamre; (10)The field which Abraham purchased of the sons of Heth: there was Abraham buried, and Sarah his wife. (11)And it came to pass after the death of Abraham, that God blessed his son Isaac; and Isaac dwelt by the well Lahairoi.
(12)Now these are the generations of Ishmael, Abraham's son, whom Hagar the Egyptian, Sarah's handmaid, bare unto Abraham: (13)And these are the names of the sons of Ishmael, by their names, according to their generations: the firstborn of Ishmael, Nebajoth; and Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam, (14)And Mishma, and Dumah, and Massa, (15)Hadar, and Tema, Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah: (16)These are the sons of Ishmael, and these are their names, by their towns, and by their castles; twelve princes according to their nations. (17)And these are the years of the life of Ishmael, an hundred and thirty and seven years: and he gave up the ghost and died; and was gathered unto his people. (18)And they dwelt from Havilah unto Shur, that is before Egypt, as thou goest toward Assyria: and he died in the presence of all his brethren.
(19)And these are the generations of Isaac, Abraham's son: Abraham begat Isaac: (20)And Isaac was forty years old when he took Rebekah to wife, the daughter of Bethuel the Syrian of Padanaram, the sister to Laban the Syrian. (21)And Isaac intreated the LORD for his wife, because she was barren: and the LORD was intreated of him, and Rebekah his wife conceived.
(22)And the children struggled together within her; and she said, If it be so, why am I thus? And she went to inquire of the LORD. (23)And the LORD said unto her, Two nations are in thy womb, and two manner of people shall be separated from thy bowels; and the one people shall be stronger than the other people; and the elder shall serve the younger. (24)And when her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were twins in her womb. (25)And the first came out red, all over like an hairy garment; and they called his name Esau. (26)And after that came his brother out, and his hand took hold on Esau's heel; and his name was called Jacob: and Isaac was threescore years old when she bare them...
• Isaac's son, Esau, takes two Hittite wives (which grieves his parents) (Genesis 26:34-35)
...(26)Then Abimelech went to him from Gerar, and Ahuzzath one of his friends, and Phichol the chief captain of his army. (27)And Isaac said unto them, Wherefore come ye to me, seeing ye hate me, and have sent me away from you? (28)And they said, We saw certainly that the LORD was with thee: and we said, Let there be now an oath betwixt us, even betwixt us and thee, and let us make a covenant with thee; (29)That thou wilt do us no hurt, as we have not touched thee, and as we have done unto thee nothing but good, and have sent thee away in peace: thou art now the blessed of the LORD. (30)And he made them a feast, and they did eat and drink. (31)And they rose up betimes in the morning, and sware one to another: and Isaac sent them away, and they departed from him in peace.
(32)And it came to pass the same day, that Isaac's servants came, and told him concerning the well which they had digged, and said unto him, We have found water. (33)And he called it Shebah: therefore the name of the city is Beersheba unto this day.
(34)And Esau was forty years old when he took to wife Judith the daughter of Beeri the Hittite, and Bashemath the daughter of Elon the Hittite: (35)Which were a grief of mind unto Isaac and to Rebekah...
• Rebekah further laments how Esau's wives (the daughter of Heth/the Hittites), weary her
...(39)And Isaac his father answered and said unto him, Behold, thy dwelling shall be the fatness of the earth, and of the dew of heaven from above; (40)And by thy sword shalt thou live, and shalt serve thy brother; and it shall come to pass when thou shalt have the dominion, that thou shalt break his yoke from off thy neck.
(41)And Esau hated Jacob because of the blessing wherewith his father blessed him: and Esau said in his heart, The days of mourning for my father are at hand; then will I slay my brother Jacob.
(42)And these words of Esau her elder son were told to Rebekah: and she sent and called Jacob her younger son, and said unto him, Behold, thy brother Esau, as touching thee, doth comfort himself, purposing to kill thee. (43)Now therefore, my son, obey my voice; and arise, flee thou to Laban my brother to Haran; (44)And tarry with him a few days, until thy brother's fury turn away; (45)Until thy brother's anger turn away from thee, and he forget that which thou hast done to him: then I will send, and fetch thee from thence: why should I be deprived also of you both in one day?
(46)And Rebekah said to Isaac, I am weary of my life because of the daughters of Heth: if Jacob take a wife of the daughters of Heth, such as these which are of the daughters of the land, what good shall my life do me?...
• Issac charges his younger son, Jacob, not to marry from the daughters of Canaan (Genesis 28:1)
• Esau, seemingly to please his father, takes a non-Canaanite, Mahalath, as an additional wife (Genesis 28:8-9)
...(1)And Isaac called Jacob, and blessed him, and charged him, and said unto him, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan. (2)Arise, go to Padanaram, to the house of Bethuel thy mother's father; and take thee a wife from thence of the daughters of Laban thy mother's brother. (3)And God Almighty bless thee, and make thee fruitful, and multiply thee, that thou mayest be a multitude of people; (4)And give thee the blessing of Abraham, to thee, and to thy seed with thee; that thou mayest inherit the land wherein thou art a stranger, which God gave unto Abraham.
(5)And Isaac sent away Jacob: and he went to Padanaram unto Laban, son of Bethuel the Syrian, the brother of Rebekah, Jacob's and Esau's mother.
(6)When Esau saw that Isaac had blessed Jacob, and sent him away to Padanaram, to take him a wife from thence; and that as he blessed him he gave him a charge, saying, Thou shalt not take a wife of the daughters of Canaan; (7)And that Jacob obeyed his father and his mother, and was gone to Padanaram; (8)And Esau seeing that the daughters of Canaan pleased not Isaac his father; (9)Then went Esau unto Ishmael, and took unto the wives which he had Mahalath the daughter of Ishmael Abraham's son, the sister of Nebajoth, to be his wife.
(10)And Jacob went out from Beersheba, and went toward Haran. (11)And he lighted upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and he took of the stones of that place, and put them for his pillows, and lay down in that place to sleep...
• Jacob -- deceived by his uncle Laban -- ends up taking sisters Leah, and then Rachel (whom he intended to marry), as wives
• Leah, however, is hated by Jacob (Genesis 29:30-31)
...(1)Then Jacob went on his journey, and came into the land of the people of the east. (2)And he looked, and behold a well in the field, and, lo, there were three flocks of sheep lying by it; for out of that well they watered the flocks: and a great stone was upon the well's mouth. (3)And thither were all the flocks gathered: and they rolled the stone from the well's mouth, and watered the sheep, and put the stone again upon the well's mouth in his place. (4)And Jacob said unto them, My brethren, whence be ye? And they said, Of Haran are we. (5)And he said unto them, Know ye Laban the son of Nahor? And they said, We know. (6)And he said unto them, Is he well? And they said, He is well: and, behold, Rachel his daughter cometh with the sheep. (7)And he said, Lo, it is yet high day, neither is it time that the cattle should be gathered together: water ye the sheep, and go and feed them. (8)And they said, We cannot, until all the flocks be gathered together, and till they roll the stone from the well's mouth; then we water the sheep.
(9)And while he yet spake with them, Rachel came with her father's sheep: for she kept them. (10)And it came to pass, when Jacob saw Rachel the daughter of Laban his mother's brother, and the sheep of Laban his mother's brother, that Jacob went near, and rolled the stone from the well's mouth, and watered the flock of Laban his mother's brother. (11)And Jacob kissed Rachel, and lifted up his voice, and wept. (12)And Jacob told Rachel that he was her father's brother, and that he was Rebekah's son: and she ran and told her father.
(13)And it came to pass, when Laban heard the tidings of Jacob his sister's son, that he ran to meet him, and embraced him, and kissed him, and brought him to his house. And he told Laban all these things.
(14)And Laban said to him, Surely art thou my bone and my flesh. And he abode with him the space of a month.
(15)And Laban said unto Jacob, Because thou art my brother, shouldest thou therefore serve me for nought? tell me, what shall thy wages be? (16)And Laban had two daughters: the name of the elder was Leah, and the name of the younger was Rachel. (17)Leah was tender eyed; but Rachel was beautiful and well favoured. (18)And Jacob loved Rachel; and said, I will serve thee seven years for Rachel thy younger daughter. (19)And Laban said, it is better that I give her to thee, than that I should give her to another man: abide with me.
(20)And Jacob served seven years for Rachel; and they seemed unto him but a few days, for the love he had to her.
(21)And Jacob said unto Laban, Give me my wife, for my days are fulfilled, that I may go in unto her. (22)And Laban gathered together all the men of the place, and made a feast. (23)And it came to pass in the evening, that he took Leah his daughter, and brought her to him; and he went in unto her. (24)And Laban gave unto his daughter Leah Zilpah his maid for an handmaid.
(25)And it came to pass, that in the morning, behold, it was Leah: and he said to Laban, What is this thou hast done unto me? did not I serve with thee for Rachel? wherefore then hast thou beguiled me? (26)And Laban said, It must not be so done in our country, to give the younger before the firstborn. (27)Fulfil her week, and we will give thee this also for the service which thou shalt serve with me yet seven other years. (28)And Jacob did so, and fulfilled her week: and he gave him Rachel his daughter to wife also. (29)And Laban gave to Rachel his daughter Bilhah his handmaid to be her maid.
(30)And he went in also unto Rachel, and he loved also Rachel more than Leah, and served with him yet seven other years.
(31)And when the LORD saw that Leah was hated, he opened her womb: but Rachel was barren. (32)And Leah conceived, and bare a son, and she called his name Reuben: for she said, Surely the LORD hath looked upon my affliction; now therefore my husband will love me. (33)And she conceived again, and bare a son; and said, Because the LORD hath heard that I was hated, he hath therefore given me this son also: and she called his name Simeon. (34)And she conceived again, and bare a son; and said, Now this time will my husband be joined unto me, because I have born him three sons: therefore was his name called Levi. (35)And she conceived again, and bare a son: and she said, Now will I praise the LORD: therefore she called his name Judah; and left bearing.
• Envy and rivalry develop between Rachel & Leah
• Rachel manipulates Jacob into taking her handmaid (Bilhah) as a concubine. Leah, in turn, follows suit (w/ Zilpah) (Genesis 30:3,9)
• Rather pitifully, Rachel offers Leah a night with Jacob -- in exchange for Reuben's mandrakes! (Genesis 30:14-15)
(1)And when Rachel saw that she bare Jacob no children, Rachel envied her sister; and said unto Jacob, Give me children, or else I die.
(2)And Jacob's anger was kindled against Rachel: and he said, Am I in God's stead, who hath withheld from thee the fruit of the womb? (3)And she said, Behold my maid Bilhah, go in unto her; and she shall bear upon my knees, that I may also have children by her. (4)And she gave him Bilhah her handmaid to wife: and Jacob went in unto her. (5)And Bilhah conceived, and bare Jacob a son. (6)And Rachel said, God hath judged me, and hath also heard my voice, and hath given me a son: therefore called she his name Dan. (7)And Bilhah Rachel's maid conceived again, and bare Jacob a second son. (8)And Rachel said, With great wrestlings have I wrestled with my sister, and I have prevailed: and she called his name Naphtali.
(9)When Leah saw that she had left bearing, she took Zilpah her maid, and gave her Jacob to wife. (10)And Zilpah Leah's maid bare Jacob a son. (11)And Leah said, A troop cometh: and she called his name Gad. (12)And Zilpah Leah's maid bare Jacob a second son. (13)And Leah said, Happy am I, for the daughters will call me blessed: and she called his name Asher.
(14)And Reuben went in the days of wheat harvest, and found mandrakes in the field, and brought them unto his mother Leah. Then Rachel said to Leah, Give me, I pray thee, of thy son's mandrakes. (15)And she said unto her, Is it a small matter that thou hast taken my husband? and wouldest thou take away my son's mandrakes also? And Rachel said, Therefore he shall lie with thee to night for thy son's mandrakes.
(16)And Jacob came out of the field in the evening, and Leah went out to meet him, and said, Thou must come in unto me; for surely I have hired thee with my son's mandrakes. And he lay with her that night. (17)And God hearkened unto Leah, and she conceived, and bare Jacob the fifth son. (18)And Leah said, God hath given me my hire, because I have given my maiden to my husband: and she called his name Issachar. (19)And Leah conceived again, and bare Jacob the sixth son. (20)And Leah said, God hath endued me with a good dowry; now will my husband dwell with me, because I have born him six sons: and she called his name Zebulun. (21)And afterwards she bare a daughter, and called her name Dinah.
(22)And God remembered Rachel, and God hearkened to her, and opened her womb. (23)And she conceived, and bare a son; and said, God hath taken away my reproach: (24)And she called his name Joseph; and said, The LORD shall add to me another son.
(25)And it came to pass, when Rachel had born Joseph, that Jacob said unto Laban, Send me away, that I may go unto mine own place, and to my country. (26)Give me my wives and my children, for whom I have served thee, and let me go: for thou knowest my service which I have done thee. (27)And Laban said unto him, I pray thee, if I have found favour in thine eyes, tarry, for I have learned by experience that the LORD hath blessed me for thy sake. (28)And he said, Appoint me thy wages, and I will give it...
• Jacob clearly prioritizes who he loves the most... (Genesis 33:1-2)
...(1)And Jacob lifted up his eyes, and looked, and, behold, Esau came, and with him four hundred men. And he divided the children unto Leah, and unto Rachel, and unto the two handmaids. (2)And he put the handmaids and their children foremost, and Leah and her children after, and Rachel and Joseph hindermost. (3)And he passed over before them, and bowed himself to the ground seven times, until he came near to his brother.
(4)And Esau ran to meet him, and embraced him, and fell on his neck, and kissed him: and they wept.
(5)And he lifted up his eyes, and saw the women and the children; and said, Who are those with thee? And he said, The children which God hath graciously given thy servant. (6)Then the handmaidens came near, they and their children, and they bowed themselves. (7)And Leah also with her children came near, and bowed themselves: and after came Joseph near and Rachel, and they bowed themselves. (8)And he said, What meanest thou by all this drove which I met? And he said, These are to find grace in the sight of my lord. (9)And Esau said, I have enough, my brother; keep that thou hast unto thyself. (10)And Jacob said, Nay, I pray thee, if now I have found grace in thy sight, then receive my present at my hand: for therefore I have seen thy face, as though I had seen the face of God, and thou wast pleased with me. (11)Take, I pray thee, my blessing that is brought to thee; because God hath dealt graciously with me, and because I have enough. And he urged him, and he took it...
• Rachel passes away (ref. Gen. 31:32)
• Reuben sleeps with Jacob's concubine, Bilhah (v.22)
...(13)And God went up from him in the place where he talked with him. (14)And Jacob set up a pillar in the place where he talked with him, even a pillar of stone: and he poured a drink offering thereon, and he poured oil thereon. (15)And Jacob called the name of the place where God spake with him, Bethel. (16)And they journeyed from Bethel; and there was but a little way to come to Ephrath: and Rachel travailed, and she had hard labour. (17)And it came to pass, when she was in hard labour, that the midwife said unto her, Fear not; thou shalt have this son also. (18)And it came to pass, as her soul was in departing, (for she died) that she called his name Benoni: but his father called him Benjamin.
(19)And Rachel died, and was buried in the way to Ephrath, which is Bethlehem. (20)And Jacob set a pillar upon her grave: that the pillar of Rachel's grave unto this day. (21)And Israel journeyed, and spread his tent beyond the tower of Edar. (22)And it came to pass, when Israel dwelt in that land, that Reuben went and lay with Bilhah his father's concubine: and Israel heard it. Now the sons of Jacob were twelve: (23)The sons of Leah; Reuben, Jacob's firstborn, and Simeon, and Levi, and Judah, and Issachar, and Zebulun: (24)The sons of Rachel; Joseph, and Benjamin: (25)And the sons of Bilhah, Rachel's handmaid; Dan, and Naphtali: (26)And the sons of Zilpah, Leah's handmaid; Gad, and Asher: these are the sons of Jacob, which were born to him in Padanaram.
(27)And Jacob came unto Isaac his father unto Mamre, unto the city of Arbah, which is Hebron, where Abraham and Isaac sojourned. (28)And the days of Isaac were an hundred and fourscore years.
(29)And Isaac gave up the ghost, and died, and was gathered unto his people, being old and full of days: and his sons Esau and Jacob buried him.
• Esau/Edom's genealogy: Includes wives Adah/Bashemath (Hittite), Aholibamah/Judith (Hittite), and Bashemath/Mahalath (Ishmaelite)
• Duke Amalek (father of the Amalekites) was Esau's grandson! (Genesis 36:12,16)
(1)Now these are the generations of Esau, who is Edom.
(2)Esau took his wives of the daughters of Canaan; Adah the daughter of Elon the Hittite, and Aholibamah the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon the Hivite; (3)And Bashemath Ishmael's daughter, sister of Nebajoth. (4)And Adah bare to Esau Eliphaz; and Bashemath bare Reuel; (5)And Aholibamah bare Jeush, and Jaalam, and Korah: these are the sons of Esau, which were born unto him in the land of Canaan.
(6)And Esau took his wives, and his sons, and his daughters, and all the persons of his house, and his cattle, and all his beasts, and all his substance, which he had got in the land of Canaan; and went into the country from the face of his brother Jacob. (7)For their riches were more than that they might dwell together; and the land wherein they were strangers could not bear them because of their cattle.
(8)Thus dwelt Esau in mount Seir: Esau is Edom.
(9)And these are the generations of Esau the father of the Edomites in mount Seir: (10)These are the names of Esau's sons; Eliphaz the son of Adah the wife of Esau, Reuel the son of Bashemath the wife of Esau. (11)And the sons of Eliphaz were Teman, Omar, Zepho, and Gatam, and Kenaz. (12)And Timna was concubine to Eliphaz Esau's son; and she bare to Eliphaz Amalek: these were the sons of Adah Esau's wife. (13)And these are the sons of Reuel; Nahath, and Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah: these were the sons of Bashemath Esau's wife. (14)And these were the sons of Aholibamah, the daughter of Anah the daughter of Zibeon, Esau's wife: and she bare to Esau Jeush, and Jaalam, and Korah.
(15)These were dukes of the sons of Esau: the sons of Eliphaz the firstborn son of Esau; duke Teman, duke Omar, duke Zepho, duke Kenaz, (16)Duke Korah, duke Gatam, and duke Amalek: these are the dukes that came of Eliphaz in the land of Edom; these were the sons of Adah.
(17)And these are the sons of Reuel Esau's son; duke Nahath, duke Zerah, duke Shammah, duke Mizzah: these are the dukes which came of Reuel in the land of Edom; these are the sons of Bashemath Esau's wife. (18)And these are the sons of Aholibamah Esau's wife; duke Jeush, duke Jaalam, duke Korah: these were the dukes that came of Aholibamah the daughter of Anah, Esau's wife.
(19)These are the sons of Esau, who is Edom, and these are their dukes...
Genesis 37:1-11; 18-30
• Israel loves Joseph (Rachel's elder son) the most -- causing sibling envy amongst the sons of his other wives. (Genesis 37:3-4)
• They conspire to slay Joseph. Reuben talks them down, leading them to sell him into slavery -- to the Ishmaelites (Abraham's concubine son)
• Scripture makes evident here that polygamous marriages have an especially adverse effect on the children
...(1)And Jacob dwelt in the land wherein his father was a stranger, in the land of Canaan.
(2)These are the generations of Jacob. Joseph, being seventeen years old, was feeding the flock with his brethren; and the lad was with the sons of Bilhah, and with the sons of Zilpah, his father's wives: and Joseph brought unto his father their evil report.
(3)Now Israel loved Joseph more than all his children, because he was the son of his old age: and he made him a coat of many colours. (4)And when his brethren saw that their father loved him more than all his brethren, they hated him, and could not speak peaceably unto him.
(5)And Joseph dreamed a dream, and he told it his brethren: and they hated him yet the more.
(6)And he said unto them, Hear, I pray you, this dream which I have dreamed: (7)For, behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and, behold, your sheaves stood round about, and made obeisance to my sheaf. (8)And his brethren said to him, Shalt thou indeed reign over us? or shalt thou indeed have dominion over us? And they hated him yet the more for his dreams, and for his words.
(9)And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it his brethren, and said, Behold, I have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, the sun and the moon and the eleven stars made obeisance to me. (10)And he told it to his father, and to his brethren: and his father rebuked him, and said unto him, What is this dream that thou hast dreamed? Shall I and thy mother and thy brethren indeed come to bow down ourselves to thee to the earth?
(11)And his brethren envied him; but his father observed the saying...
...(18)And when they saw him afar off, even before he came near unto them, they conspired against him to slay him. (19)And they said one to another, Behold, this dreamer cometh. (20)Come now therefore, and let us slay him, and cast him into some pit, and we will say, Some evil beast hath devoured him: and we shall see what will become of his dreams. (21)And Reuben heard it, and he delivered him out of their hands; and said, Let us not kill him. (22)And Reuben said unto them, Shed no blood, but cast him into this pit that is in the wilderness, and lay no hand upon him; that he might rid him out of their hands, to deliver him to his father again.
(23)And it came to pass, when Joseph was come unto his brethren, that they stript Joseph out of his coat, his coat of many colours that was on him; (24)And they took him, and cast him into a pit: and the pit was empty, there was no water in it. (25)And they sat down to eat bread: and they lifted up their eyes and looked, and, behold, a company of Ishmeelites came from Gilead with their camels bearing spicery and balm and myrrh, going to carry it down to Egypt. (26)And Judah said unto his brethren, What profit it is if we slay our brother, and conceal his blood? (27)Come, and let us sell him to the Ishmeelites, and let not our hand be upon him; for he is our brother and our flesh. And his brethren were content.
(28)Then there passed by Midianites merchantmen; and they drew and lifted up Joseph out of the pit, and sold Joseph to the Ishmeelites for twenty pieces of silver: and they brought Joseph into Egypt.
(29)And Reuben returned unto the pit; and, behold, Joseph was not in the pit; and he rent his clothes. (30)And he returned unto his brethren, and said, The child is not; and I, whither shall I go?...
Leviticus 18:1-5; 15-20
• Mosaic Law forbids polygamous marriage between a husband and two sisters (e.g. Jacob & Rachel/Leah)
...(1)And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, (2)Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them, I am the LORD your God. (3)After the doings of the land of Egypt, wherein ye dwelt, shall ye not do: and after the doings of the land of Canaan, whither I bring you, shall ye not do: neither shall ye walk in their ordinances. (4)Ye shall do my judgments, and keep mine ordinances, to walk therein: I am the LORD your God. (5)Ye shall therefore keep my statutes, and my judgments: which if a man do, he shall live in them: I am the LORD...
...(15)Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy daughter in law: she is thy son's wife; thou shalt not uncover her nakedness. (16)Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of thy brother's wife: it is thy brother's nakedness. (17)Thou shalt not uncover the nakedness of a woman and her daughter, neither shalt thou take her son's daughter, or her daughter's daughter, to uncover her nakedness; for they are her near kinswomen: it is wickedness. (18)Neither shalt thou take a wife to her sister, to vex her, to uncover her nakedness, beside the other in her life time. (19)Also thou shalt not approach unto a woman to uncover her nakedness, as long as she is put apart for her uncleanness.
(20)Moreover thou shalt not lie carnally with thy neighbour's wife, to defile thyself with her...
• Taking multiple (more than two) wives is forbidden, also (Deuteronomy 17:17)
• Interestingly, king David, Solomon, and much of the royal bloodlines of Israel & Judah did not pay heed to this commandment...
...(14)When thou art come unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee, and shalt possess it, and shalt dwell therein, and shalt say, I will set a king over me, like as all the nations that are about me; (15)Thou shalt in any wise set him king over thee, whom the LORD thy God shall choose: one from among thy brethren shalt thou set king over thee: thou mayest not set a stranger over thee, which is not thy brother. (16)But he shall not multiply horses to himself, nor cause the people to return to Egypt, to the end that he should multiply horses: forasmuch as the LORD hath said unto you, Ye shall henceforth return no more that way.
(17)Neither shall he multiply wives to himself, that his heart turn not away: neither shall he greatly multiply to himself silver and gold. (18)And it shall be, when he sitteth upon the throne of his kingdom, that he shall write him a copy of this law in a book out of that which is before the priests the Levites: (19)And it shall be with him, and he shall read therein all the days of his life: that he may learn to fear the LORD his God, to keep all the words of this law and these statutes, to do them: (20)That his heart be not lifted up above his brethren, and that he turn not aside from the commandment, to the right hand, or to the left: to the end that he may prolong his days in his kingdom, he, and his children, in the midst of Israel...
• In the event of a polygamous marriage, the firstborn son of the hated wife receives a double portion of the inheritance
• Very telling how Scripture presumes that one wife will be loved, and another hated...
...(15)If a man have two wives, one beloved, and another hated, and they have born him children, both the beloved and the hated; and if the firstborn son be hers that was hated: (16)Then it shall be, when he maketh his sons to inherit that which he hath, that he may not make the son of the beloved firstborn before the son of the hated, which is indeed the firstborn: (17)But he shall acknowledge the son of the hated for the firstborn, by giving him a double portion of all that he hath: for he is the beginning of his strength; the right of the firstborn is his...
• Gideon/Jerubbaal (who delivered Israel from the MIdianites) had "many wives" and conceived many sons (70).
• His concubine gives birth to Abimelech (who murders and overthrows his brethren, later on)
...(22)Then the men of Israel said unto Gideon, Rule thou over us, both thou, and thy son, and thy son's son also: for thou hast delivered us from the hand of Midian.
(23)And Gideon said unto them, I will not rule over you, neither shall my son rule over you: the LORD shall rule over you. (24)And Gideon said unto them, I would desire a request of you, that ye would give me every man the earrings of his prey. (For they had golden earrings, because they were Ishmaelites.) (25)And they answered, We will willingly give them. And they spread a garment, and did cast therein every man the earrings of his prey. (26)And the weight of the golden earrings that he requested was a thousand and seven hundred shekels of gold; beside ornaments, and collars, and purple raiment that was on the kings of Midian, and beside the chains that were about their camels' necks.
(27)And Gideon made an ephod thereof, and put it in his city, even in Ophrah: and all Israel went thither a whoring after it: which thing became a snare unto Gideon, and to his house.
(28)Thus was Midian subdued before the children of Israel, so that they lifted up their heads no more. And the country was in quietness forty years in the days of Gideon.
(29)And Jerubbaal the son of Joash went and dwelt in his own house. (30)And Gideon had threescore and ten sons of his body begotten: for he had many wives. (31)And his concubine that was in Shechem, she also bare him a son, whose name he called Abimelech. (32)And Gideon the son of Joash died in a good old age, and was buried in the sepulchre of Joash his father, in Ophrah of the Abiezrites.
(33)And it came to pass, as soon as Gideon was dead, that the children of Israel turned again, and went a whoring after Baalim, and made Baalberith their god. (34)And the children of Israel remembered not the LORD their God, who had delivered them out of the hands of all their enemies on every side: (35)Neither shewed they kindness to the house of Jerubbaal, namely, Gideon, according to all the goodness which he had shewed unto Israel.
Judges 9:1-6; 21-25; 50-57
• Abimelech (of Gideon's concubine) deceives his half-brothers -- slaying all of them, save for Jotham (the youngest)
• (2) Scripture makes evident here that polygamous marriages have an especially adverse effect on the children
(1)And Abimelech the son of Jerubbaal went to Shechem unto his mother's brethren, and communed with them, and with all the family of the house of his mother's father, saying, (2)Speak, I pray you, in the ears of all the men of Shechem, Whether is better for you, either that all the sons of Jerubbaal, which are threescore and ten persons, reign over you, or that one reign over you? remember also that I am your bone and your flesh.
(3)And his mother's brethren spake of him in the ears of all the men of Shechem all these words: and their hearts inclined to follow Abimelech; for they said, He is our brother. (4)And they gave him threescore and ten pieces of silver out of the house of Baalberith, wherewith Abimelech hired vain and light persons, which followed him. (5)And he went unto his father's house at Ophrah, and slew his brethren the sons of Jerubbaal, being threescore and ten persons, upon one stone: notwithstanding yet Jotham the youngest son of Jerubbaal was left; for he hid himself.
(6)And all the men of Shechem gathered together, and all the house of Millo, and went, and made Abimelech king, by the plain of the pillar that was in Shechem...
...(21)And Jotham ran away, and fled, and went to Beer, and dwelt there, for fear of Abimelech his brother.
(22)When Abimelech had reigned three years over Israel, (23)Then God sent an evil spirit between Abimelech and the men of Shechem; and the men of Shechem dealt treacherously with Abimelech: (24)That the cruelty done to the threescore and ten sons of Jerubbaal might come, and their blood be laid upon Abimelech their brother, which slew them; and upon the men of Shechem, which aided him in the killing of his brethren.
(25)And the men of Shechem set liers in wait for him in the top of the mountains, and they robbed all that came along that way by them: and it was told Abimelech...
...(50)Then went Abimelech to Thebez, and encamped against Thebez, and took it. (51)But there was a strong tower within the city, and thither fled all the men and women, and all they of the city, and shut it to them, and gat them up to the top of the tower. (52)And Abimelech came unto the tower, and fought against it, and went hard unto the door of the tower to burn it with fire.
(53)And a certain woman cast a piece of a millstone upon Abimelech's head, and all to brake his skull.
(54)Then he called hastily unto the young man his armourbearer, and said unto him, Draw thy sword, and slay me, that men say not of me, A woman slew him. And his young man thrust him through, and he died.
(55)And when the men of Israel saw that Abimelech was dead, they departed every man unto his place.
(56)Thus God rendered the wickedness of Abimelech, which he did unto his father, in slaying his seventy brethren: (57)And all the evil of the men of Shechem did God render upon their heads: and upon them came the curse of Jotham the son of Jerubbaal...
I Samuel 1:1-20
• Like Jacob, Elkanah had two wives. ...and Like Jacob, he loved one wife (Hannah) more than the other (I Samuel 1:1,5)
• Similar to Hagar/Sarai and Rachel/Leah, Peninnah envied Hannah, while provoking her for being barren (I Samuel 1:6)
...(1)Now there was a certain man of Ramathaimzophim, of mount Ephraim, and his name was Elkanah, the son of Jeroham, the son of Elihu, the son of Tohu, the son of Zuph, an Ephrathite: (2)And he had two wives; the name of the one was Hannah, and the name of the other Peninnah: and Peninnah had children, but Hannah had no children.
(3)And this man went up out of his city yearly to worship and to sacrifice unto the LORD of hosts in Shiloh. And the two sons of Eli, Hophni and Phinehas, the priests of the LORD, were there. (4)And when the time was that Elkanah offered, he gave to Peninnah his wife, and to all her sons and her daughters, portions: (5)But unto Hannah he gave a worthy portion; for he loved Hannah: but the LORD had shut up her womb. (6)And her adversary also provoked her sore, for to make her fret, because the LORD had shut up her womb. (7)And as he did so year by year, when she went up to the house of the LORD, so she provoked her; therefore she wept, and did not eat. (8)Then said Elkanah her husband to her, Hannah, why weepest thou? and why eatest thou not? and why is thy heart grieved? am not I better to thee than ten sons?
(9)So Hannah rose up after they had eaten in Shiloh, and after they had drunk. Now Eli the priest sat upon a seat by a post of the temple of the LORD. (10)And she was in bitterness of soul, and prayed unto the LORD, and wept sore. (11)And she vowed a vow, and said, O LORD of hosts, if thou wilt indeed look on the affliction of thine handmaid, and remember me, and not forget thine handmaid, but wilt give unto thine handmaid a man child, then I will give him unto the LORD all the days of his life, and there shall no rasor come upon his head.
(12)And it came to pass, as she continued praying before the LORD, that Eli marked her mouth. (13)Now Hannah, she spake in her heart; only her lips moved, but her voice was not heard: therefore Eli thought she had been drunken. (14)And Eli said unto her, How long wilt thou be drunken? put away thy wine from thee. (15)And Hannah answered and said, No, my lord, I am a woman of a sorrowful spirit: I have drunk neither wine nor strong drink, but have poured out my soul before the LORD. (16)Count not thine handmaid for a daughter of Belial: for out of the abundance of my complaint and grief have I spoken hitherto.
(17)Then Eli answered and said, Go in peace: and the God of Israel grant thee thy petition that thou hast asked of him. (18)And she said, Let thine handmaid find grace in thy sight. So the woman went her way, and did eat, and her countenance was no more sad. (19)And they rose up in the morning early, and worshipped before the LORD, and returned, and came to their house to Ramah: and Elkanah knew Hannah his wife; and the LORD remembered her. (20)Wherefore it came to pass, when the time was come about after Hannah had conceived, that she bare a son, and called his name Samuel, saying, Because I have asked him of the LORD...
I Samuel 18:5-30
• Saul (with an ulterior motive) offers David his daughter, Michal, to be David's wife (I Samuel 18:20-21)
...(5)And David went out whithersoever Saul sent him, and behaved himself wisely: and Saul set him over the men of war, and he was accepted in the sight of all the people, and also in the sight of Saul's servants. (6)And it came to pass as they came, when David was returned from the slaughter of the Philistine, that the women came out of all cities of Israel, singing and dancing, to meet king Saul, with tabrets, with joy, and with instruments of musick.
(7)And the women answered one another as they played, and said, Saul hath slain his thousands, and David his ten thousands. (8)And Saul was very wroth, and the saying displeased him; and he said, They have ascribed unto David ten thousands, and to me they have ascribed but thousands: and what can he have more but the kingdom?
(9)And Saul eyed David from that day and forward.
(10)And it came to pass on the morrow, that the evil spirit from God came upon Saul, and he prophesied in the midst of the house: and David played with his hand, as at other times: and there was a javelin in Saul's hand. (11)And Saul cast the javelin; for he said, I will smite David even to the wall with it. And David avoided out of his presence twice. (12)And Saul was afraid of David, because the LORD was with him, and was departed from Saul. (13)Therefore Saul removed him from him, and made him his captain over a thousand; and he went out and came in before the people. (14)And David behaved himself wisely in all his ways; and the LORD was with him. (15)Wherefore when Saul saw that he behaved himself very wisely, he was afraid of him. (16)But all Israel and Judah loved David, because he went out and came in before them.
(17)And Saul said to David, Behold my elder daughter Merab, her will I give thee to wife: only be thou valiant for me, and fight the LORD'S battles. For Saul said, Let not mine hand be upon him, but let the hand of the Philistines be upon him. (18)And David said unto Saul, Who am I? and what is my life, my father's family in Israel, that I should be son in law to the king?
(19)But it came to pass at the time when Merab Saul's daughter should have been given to David, that she was given unto Adriel the Meholathite to wife.
(20)And Michal Saul's daughter loved David: and they told Saul, and the thing pleased him. (21)And Saul said, I will give him her, that she may be a snare to him, and that the hand of the Philistines may be against him. Wherefore Saul said to David, Thou shalt this day be my son in law in the one of the twain. (22)And Saul commanded his servants, saying, Commune with David secretly, and say, Behold, the king hath delight in thee, and all his servants love thee: now therefore be the king's son in law.
(23)And Saul's servants spake those words in the ears of David. And David said, Seemeth it to you a light thing to be a king's son in law, seeing that I am a poor man, and lightly esteemed? (24)And the servants of Saul told him, saying, On this manner spake David. (25)And Saul said, Thus shall ye say to David, The king desireth not any dowry, but an hundred foreskins of the Philistines, to be avenged of the king's enemies. But Saul thought to make David fall by the hand of the Philistines. (26)And when his servants told David these words, it pleased David well to be the king's son in law: and the days were not expired. (27)Wherefore David arose and went, he and his men, and slew of the Philistines two hundred men; and David brought their foreskins, and they gave them in full tale to the king, that he might be the king's son in law. And Saul gave him Michal his daughter to wife.
(28)And Saul saw and knew that the LORD was with David, and that Michal Saul's daughter loved him. (29)And Saul was yet the more afraid of David; and Saul became David's enemy continually.
(30)Then the princes of the Philistines went forth: and it came to pass, after they went forth, that David behaved himself more wisely than all the servants of Saul; so that his name was much set by...
I Samuel 19:8-20
• Saul now conspires to assassinate David. Michal covertly informs her husband and helps him flee
...(8)And there was war again: and David went out, and fought with the Philistines, and slew them with a great slaughter; and they fled from him. (9)And the evil spirit from the LORD was upon Saul, as he sat in his house with his javelin in his hand: and David played with his hand. (10)And Saul sought to smite David even to the wall with the javelin; but he slipped away out of Saul's presence, and he smote the javelin into the wall: and David fled, and escaped that night.
(11)Saul also sent messengers unto David's house, to watch him, and to slay him in the morning: and Michal David's wife told him, saying, If thou save not thy life to night, to morrow thou shalt be slain. (12)So Michal let David down through a window: and he went, and fled, and escaped. (13)And Michal took an image, and laid it in the bed, and put a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster, and covered it with a cloth.
(14)And when Saul sent messengers to take David, she said, He is sick.
(15)And Saul sent the messengers again to see David, saying, Bring him up to me in the bed, that I may slay him. (16)And when the messengers were come in, behold, there was an image in the bed, with a pillow of goats' hair for his bolster. (17)And Saul said unto Michal, Why hast thou deceived me so, and sent away mine enemy, that he is escaped? And Michal answered Saul, He said unto me, Let me go; why should I kill thee?
(18)So David fled, and escaped, and came to Samuel to Ramah, and told him all that Saul had done to him. And he and Samuel went and dwelt in Naioth. (19)And it was told Saul, saying, Behold, David is at Naioth in Ramah. (20)And Saul sent messengers to take David: and when they saw the company of the prophets prophesying, and Samuel standing as appointed over them, the Spirit of God was upon the messengers of Saul, and they also prophesied...
I Samuel 25:1-13; 23-27; 36-44
• David (while evading Saul) takes Abigail, and then Ahinoam, as additional wives.
• Meanwhile, Saul gives David's first wife, Michal, to another man (Phalti, of Gallim).
...(1)And Samuel died; and all the Israelites were gathered together, and lamented him, and buried him in his house at Ramah. And David arose, and went down to the wilderness of Paran.
(2)And there was a man in Maon, whose possessions were in Carmel; and the man was very great, and he had three thousand sheep, and a thousand goats: and he was shearing his sheep in Carmel. (3)Now the name of the man was Nabal; and the name of his wife was Abigail: and she was a woman of good understanding, and of a beautiful countenance: but the man was churlish and evil in his doings; and he was of the house of Caleb. (4)And David heard in the wilderness that Nabal did shear his sheep.
(5)And David sent out ten young men, and David said unto the young men, Get you up to Carmel, and go to Nabal, and greet him in my name: (6)And thus shall ye say to him that liveth in prosperity, Peace be both to thee, and peace be to thine house, and peace be unto all that thou hast. (7)And now I have heard that thou hast shearers: now thy shepherds which were with us, we hurt them not, neither was there ought missing unto them, all the while they were in Carmel. (8)Ask thy young men, and they will shew thee. Wherefore let the young men find favour in thine eyes: for we come in a good day: give, I pray thee, whatsoever cometh to thine hand unto thy servants, and to thy son David.
(9)And when David's young men came, they spake to Nabal according to all those words in the name of David, and ceased. (10)And Nabal answered David's servants, and said, Who is David? and who is the son of Jesse? there be many servants now a days that break away every man from his master. (11)Shall I then take my bread, and my water, and my flesh that I have killed for my shearers, and give it unto men, whom I know not whence they be?
(12)So David's young men turned their way, and went again, and came and told him all those sayings.
(13)And David said unto his men, Gird ye on every man his sword. And they girded on every man his sword; and David also girded on his sword: and there went up after David about four hundred men; and two hundred abode by the stuff...
...(23)And when Abigail saw David, she hasted, and lighted off the ass, and fell before David on her face, and bowed herself to the ground, (24)And fell at his feet, and said, Upon me, my lord, upon me let this iniquity be: and let thine handmaid, I pray thee, speak in thine audience, and hear the words of thine handmaid. (25)Let not my lord, I pray thee, regard this man of Belial, even Nabal: for as his name is, so is he; Nabal is his name, and folly is with him: but I thine handmaid saw not the young men of my lord, whom thou didst send.
(26)Now therefore, my lord, as the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, seeing the LORD hath withholden thee from coming to shed blood, and from avenging thyself with thine own hand, now let thine enemies, and they that seek evil to my lord, be as Nabal. (27)And now this blessing which thine handmaid hath brought unto my lord, let it even be given unto the young men that follow my lord...
...(36)And Abigail came to Nabal; and, behold, he held a feast in his house, like the feast of a king; and Nabal's heart was merry within him, for he was very drunken: wherefore she told him nothing, less or more, until the morning light. (37)But it came to pass in the morning, when the wine was gone out of Nabal, and his wife had told him these things, that his heart died within him, and he became as a stone.
(38)And it came to pass about ten days after, that the LORD smote Nabal, that he died.
(39)And when David heard that Nabal was dead, he said, Blessed be the LORD, that hath pleaded the cause of my reproach from the hand of Nabal, and hath kept his servant from evil: for the LORD hath returned the wickedness of Nabal upon his own head. And David sent and communed with Abigail, to take her to him to wife.
(40)And when the servants of David were come to Abigail to Carmel, they spake unto her, saying, David sent us unto thee, to take thee to him to wife. (41)And she arose, and bowed herself on her face to the earth, and said, Behold, let thine handmaid be a servant to wash the feet of the servants of my lord. (42)And Abigail hasted, and arose, and rode upon an ass, with five damsels of hers that went after her; and she went after the messengers of David, and became his wife.
(43)David also took Ahinoam of Jezreel; and they were also both of them his wives.
(44)But Saul had given Michal his daughter, David's wife, to Phalti the son of Laish, which was of Gallim...
I Samuel 27:1-9
• David, with new wives Abigail and Ahinoam, flees further away from Saul to Achish
• Curiously though, Abigail is still referred to as Nabal's wife... (I Samuel 27:3)
...(1)And David said in his heart, I shall now perish one day by the hand of Saul: there is nothing better for me than that I should speedily escape into the land of the Philistines; and Saul shall despair of me, to seek me any more in any coast of Israel: so shall I escape out of his hand.
(2)And David arose, and he passed over with the six hundred men that were with him unto Achish, the son of Maoch, king of Gath. (3)And David dwelt with Achish at Gath, he and his men, every man with his household, David with his two wives, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and Abigail the Carmelitess, Nabal's wife.
(4)And it was told Saul that David was fled to Gath: and he sought no more again for him.
(5)And David said unto Achish, If I have now found grace in thine eyes, let them give me a place in some town in the country, that I may dwell there: for why should thy servant dwell in the royal city with thee? (6)Then Achish gave him Ziklag that day: wherefore Ziklag pertaineth unto the kings of Judah unto this day.
(7)And the time that David dwelt in the country of the Philistines was a full year and four months.
(8)And David and his men went up, and invaded the Geshurites, and the Gezrites, and the Amalekites: for those nations were of old the inhabitants of the land, as thou goest to Shur, even unto the land of Egypt. (9)And David smote the land, and left neither man nor woman alive, and took away the sheep, and the oxen, and the asses, and the camels, and the apparel, and returned, and came to Achish...
I Samuel 30:1-20
• The Amalekites counter-attack, taking David's wives captive. David smites his foes and recovers them
• (2) Abigail is still referred to as Nabal's wife (I Samuel 30:5)
...(1)And it came to pass, when David and his men were come to Ziklag on the third day, that the Amalekites had invaded the south, and Ziklag, and smitten Ziklag, and burned it with fire; (2)And had taken the women captives, that therein: they slew not any, either great or small, but carried them away, and went on their way.
(3)So David and his men came to the city, and, behold, it was burned with fire; and their wives, and their sons, and their daughters, were taken captives. (4)Then David and the people that were with him lifted up their voice and wept, until they had no more power to weep. (5)And David's two wives were taken captives, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and Abigail the wife of Nabal the Carmelite.
(6)And David was greatly distressed; for the people spake of stoning him, because the soul of all the people was grieved, every man for his sons and for his daughters: but David encouraged himself in the LORD his God.
(7)And David said to Abiathar the priest, Ahimelech's son, I pray thee, bring me hither the ephod. And Abiathar brought thither the ephod to David. (8)And David inquired at the LORD, saying, Shall I pursue after this troop? shall I overtake them? And he answered him, Pursue: for thou shalt surely overtake them, and without fail recover all. (9)So David went, he and the six hundred men that were with him, and came to the brook Besor, where those that were left behind stayed. (10)But David pursued, he and four hundred men: for two hundred abode behind, which were so faint that they could not go over the brook Besor.
(11)And they found an Egyptian in the field, and brought him to David, and gave him bread, and he did eat; and they made him drink water; (12)And they gave him a piece of a cake of figs, and two clusters of raisins: and when he had eaten, his spirit came again to him: for he had eaten no bread, nor drunk any water, three days and three nights. (13)And David said unto him, To whom belongeth thou? and whence art thou? And he said, I am a young man of Egypt, servant to an Amalekite; and my master left me, because three days agone I fell sick. (14)We made an invasion upon the south of the Cherethites, and upon the coast which belongeth to Judah, and upon the south of Caleb; and we burned Ziklag with fire.
(15)And David said to him, Canst thou bring me down to this company? And he said, Swear unto me by God, that thou wilt neither kill me, nor deliver me into the hands of my master, and I will bring thee down to this company.
(16)And when he had brought him down, behold, they were spread abroad upon all the earth, eating and drinking, and dancing, because of all the great spoil that they had taken out of the land of the Philistines, and out of the land of Judah. (17)And David smote them from the twilight even unto the evening of the next day: and there escaped not a man of them, save four hundred young men, which rode upon camels, and fled. (18)And David recovered all that the Amalekites had carried away: and David rescued his two wives. (19)And there was nothing lacking to them, neither small nor great, neither sons nor daughters, neither spoil, nor any thing that they had taken to them: David recovered all. (20)And David took all the flocks and the herds, which they drave before those other cattle, and said, This is David's spoil...
II Samuel 2:1-7
• David returns to Judah (with wives Abigail & Ahinoam) and is crowned king
• (3) Abigail is still referred to as Nabal's wife (II Samuel 2:2)
...(1)And it came to pass after this, that David inquired of the LORD, saying, Shall I go up into any of the cities of Judah? And the LORD said unto him, Go up. And David said, Whither shall I go up? And he said, Unto Hebron.
(2)So David went up thither, and his two wives also, Ahinoam the Jezreelitess, and Abigail Nabal's wife the Carmelite. (3)And his men that were with him did David bring up, every man with his household: and they dwelt in the cities of Hebron. (4)And the men of Judah came, and there they anointed David king over the house of Judah. And they told David, saying, That the men of Jabeshgilead were they that buried Saul. (5)And David sent messengers unto the men of Jabeshgilead, and said unto them, Blessed be ye of the LORD, that ye have shewed this kindness unto your lord, even unto Saul, and have buried him. (6)And now the LORD shew kindness and truth unto you: and I also will requite you this kindness, because ye have done this thing.
(7)Therefore now let your hands be strengthened, and be ye valiant: for your master Saul is dead, and also the house of Judah have anointed me king over them...
II Samuel 3:1-16
• David's genealogy, with now 7 wives: Michal, Abigail, Ahinoam, Maacah, Haggith, Abital, & Eglah (II Samuel 3:2-5)
• (4) Abigail is still referred to as Nabal's wife (II Samuel 3:3)
• Saul also had a concubine: Rizpah, daughter of Aiah (II Samuel 3:7)
• David then ordered to have his original wife, Michal, returned to him (whom was remarried to Phaltiel) (II Samuel 3:13-16)
...(1)Now there was long war between the house of Saul and the house of David: but David waxed stronger and stronger, and the house of Saul waxed weaker and weaker.
(2)And unto David were sons born in Hebron: and his firstborn was Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; (3)And his second, Chileab, of Abigail the wife of Nabal the Carmelite; and the third, Absalom the son of Maacah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur; (4)And the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith; and the fifth, Shephatiah the son of Abital; (5)And the sixth, Ithream, by Eglah David's wife. These were born to David in Hebron.
(6)And it came to pass, while there was war between the house of Saul and the house of David, that Abner made himself strong for the house of Saul. (7)And Saul had a concubine, whose name was Rizpah, the daughter of Aiah: and Ishbosheth said to Abner, Wherefore hast thou gone in unto my father's concubine?
(8)Then was Abner very wroth for the words of Ishbosheth, and said, Am I a dog's head, which against Judah do shew kindness this day unto the house of Saul thy father, to his brethren, and to his friends, and have not delivered thee into the hand of David, that thou chargest me to day with a fault concerning this woman? (9)So do God to Abner, and more also, except, as the LORD hath sworn to David, even so I do to him; (10)To translate the kingdom from the house of Saul, and to set up the throne of David over Israel and over Judah, from Dan even to Beersheba. (11)And he could not answer Abner a word again, because he feared him.
(12)And Abner sent messengers to David on his behalf, saying, Whose is the land? saying also, Make thy league with me, and, behold, my hand shall be with thee, to bring about all Israel unto thee.
(13)And he said, Well; I will make a league with thee: but one thing I require of thee, that is, Thou shalt not see my face, except thou first bring Michal Saul's daughter, when thou comest to see my face.
(14)And David sent messengers to Ishbosheth Saul's son, saying, Deliver me my wife Michal, which I espoused to me for an hundred foreskins of the Philistines. (15)And Ishbosheth sent, and took her from her husband, even from Phaltiel the son of Laish. (16)And her husband went with her along weeping behind her to Bahurim. Then said Abner unto him, Go, return. And he returned...
II Samuel 5:4-18
• David takes yet more wives and concubines out of Jerusalem (Bathsheba soon revealed as one of them) (II Samuel 5:13)
• Like Gideon (whom, nonetheless, was not a king), David is in violation of Deuteronomy 17:17 of the Mosaic Law
...(4)David was thirty years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years. (5)In Hebron he reigned over Judah seven years and six months: and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty and three years over all Israel and Judah. (6)And the king and his men went to Jerusalem unto the Jebusites, the inhabitants of the land: which spake unto David, saying, Except thou take away the blind and the lame, thou shalt not come in hither: thinking, David cannot come in hither. (7)Nevertheless David took the strong hold of Zion: the same is the city of David.
(8)And David said on that day, Whosoever getteth up to the gutter, and smiteth the Jebusites, and the lame and the blind, that are hated of David's soul he shall be chief and captain. Wherefore they said, The blind and the lame shall not come into the house. (9)So David dwelt in the fort, and called it the city of David. And David built round about from Millo and inward.
(10)And David went on, and grew great, and the LORD God of hosts was with him. (11)And Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and cedar trees, and carpenters, and masons: and they built David an house. (12)And David perceived that the LORD had established him king over Israel, and that he had exalted his kingdom for his people Israel's sake. (13)And David took him more concubines and wives out of Jerusalem, after he was come from Hebron: and there were yet sons and daughters born to David. (14)And these be the names of those that were born unto him in Jerusalem; Shammua, and Shobab, and Nathan, and Solomon, (15)Ibhar also, and Elishua, and Nepheg, and Japhia, (16)And Elishama, and Eliada, and Eliphalet.
(17)But when the Philistines heard that they had anointed David king over Israel, all the Philistines came up to seek David; and David heard of it, and went down to the hold. (18)The Philistines also came and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim...
II Samuel 6:12-23
• Michal, David's first wife, ends up despising her husband
...(12)And it was told king David, saying, The LORD hath blessed the house of Obededom, and all that pertaineth unto him, because of the ark of God. So David went and brought up the ark of God from the house of Obededom into the city of David with gladness.
(13)And it was so, that when they that bare the ark of the LORD had gone six paces, he sacrificed oxen and fatlings. (14)And David danced before the LORD with all his might; and David was girded with a linen ephod. (15)So David and all the house of Israel brought up the ark of the LORD with shouting, and with the sound of the trumpet. (16)And as the ark of the LORD came into the city of David, Michal Saul's daughter looked through a window, and saw king David leaping and dancing before the LORD; and she despised him in her heart.
(17)And they brought in the ark of the LORD, and set it in his place, in the midst of the tabernacle that David had pitched for it: and David offered burnt offerings and peace offerings before the LORD. (18)And as soon as David had made an end of offering burnt offerings and peace offerings, he blessed the people in the name of the LORD of hosts. (19)And he dealt among all the people, even among the whole multitude of Israel, as well to the women as men, to every one a cake of bread, and a good piece of flesh, and a flagon of wine. So all the people departed every one to his house.
(20)Then David returned to bless his household. And Michal the daughter of Saul came out to meet David, and said, How glorious was the king of Israel to day, who uncovered himself to day in the eyes of the handmaids of his servants, as one of the vain fellows shamelessly uncovereth himself!
(21)And David said unto Michal, It was before the LORD, which chose me before thy father, and before all his house, to appoint me ruler over the people of the LORD, over Israel: therefore will I play before the LORD. (22)And I will yet be more vile than thus, and will be base in mine own sight: and of the maidservants which thou hast spoken of, of them shall I be had in honour.
(23)Therefore Michal the daughter of Saul had no child unto the day of her death...
II Samuel 11:1-27
• David lusts after Uriah the Hittite's wife, Bathsheba, and sleeps with her. She then becomes pregnant (v. 2-5)
• Afterward, David wickedly conspires (and succeeds) to have Uriah die in battle (v.15-17)
• David then takes Bathsheba as his 8th wife -- which displeases the Lord (v. 26-27)
...(1)And it came to pass, after the year was expired, at the time when kings go forth to battle, that David sent Joab, and his servants with him, and all Israel; and they destroyed the children of Ammon, and besieged Rabbah. But David tarried still at Jerusalem. (2)And it came to pass in an eveningtide, that David arose from off his bed, and walked upon the roof of the king's house: and from the roof he saw a woman washing herself; and the woman was very beautiful to look upon. (3)And David sent and inquired after the woman. And one said, Is not this Bathsheba, the daughter of Eliam, the wife of Uriah the Hittite?
(4)And David sent messengers, and took her; and she came in unto him, and he lay with her; for she was purified from her uncleanness: and she returned unto her house.
(5)And the woman conceived, and sent and told David, and said, I am with child.
(6)And David sent to Joab, saying, Send me Uriah the Hittite. And Joab sent Uriah to David. (7)And when Uriah was come unto him, David demanded of him how Joab did, and how the people did, and how the war prospered. (8)And David said to Uriah, Go down to thy house, and wash thy feet. And Uriah departed out of the king's house, and there followed him a mess of meat from the king.
(9)But Uriah slept at the door of the king's house with all the servants of his lord, and went not down to his house. (10)And when they had told David, saying, Uriah went not down unto his house, David said unto Uriah, Camest thou not from thy journey? why then didst thou not go down unto thine house? (11)And Uriah said unto David, The ark, and Israel, and Judah, abide in tents; and my lord Joab, and the servants of my lord, are encamped in the open fields; shall I then go into mine house, to eat and to drink, and to lie with my wife? as thou livest, and as thy soul liveth, I will not do this thing. (12)And David said to Uriah, Tarry here to day also, and to morrow I will let thee depart. So Uriah abode in Jerusalem that day, and the morrow.
(13)And when David had called him, he did eat and drink before him; and he made him drunk: and at even he went out to lie on his bed with the servants of his lord, but went not down to his house.
(14)And it came to pass in the morning, that David wrote a letter to Joab, and sent it by the hand of Uriah. (15)And he wrote in the letter, saying, Set ye Uriah in the forefront of the hottest battle, and retire ye from him, that he may be smitten, and die. (16)And it came to pass, when Joab observed the city, that he assigned Uriah unto a place where he knew that valiant men were.
(17)And the men of the city went out, and fought with Joab: and there fell some of the people of the servants of David; and Uriah the Hittite died also.
(18)Then Joab sent and told David all the things concerning the war; (19)And charged the messenger, saying, When thou hast made an end of telling the matters of the war unto the king, (20)And if so be that the king's wrath arise, and he say unto thee, Wherefore approached ye so nigh unto the city when ye did fight? knew ye not that they would shoot from the wall? (21)Who smote Abimelech the son of Jerubbesheth? did not a woman cast a piece of a millstone upon him from the wall, that he died in Thebez? why went ye nigh the wall? then say thou, Thy servant Uriah the Hittite is dead also.
(22)So the messenger went, and came and shewed David all that Joab had sent him for. (23)And the messenger said unto David, Surely the men prevailed against us, and came out unto us into the field, and we were upon them even unto the entering of the gate. (24)And the shooters shot from off the wall upon thy servants; and some of the king's servants be dead, and thy servant Uriah the Hittite is dead also. (25)Then David said unto the messenger, Thus shalt thou say unto Joab, Let not this thing displease thee, for the sword devoureth one as well as another: make thy battle more strong against the city, and overthrow it: and encourage thou him.
(26)And when the wife of Uriah heard that Uriah her husband was dead, she mourned for her husband.
(27)And when the mourning was past, David sent and fetched her to his house, and she became his wife, and bare him a son. But the thing that David had done displeased the LORD.
II Samuel 12:1-25
• God heavily rebukes David for his wickedness; declaring permanent judgment upon his bloodline, and death upon his newborn son
• The Lord additionally declares He would (in humiliating fashion) give David's wives over to "his neighbor"
• Concerning verse 8, God gave Saul's wives (whom were then widows) into David's care -- not for David to marry them, also
(1)And the LORD sent Nathan unto David. And he came unto him, and said unto him, There were two men in one city; the one rich, and the other poor.
(2)The rich man had exceeding many flocks and herds: (3)But the poor man had nothing, save one little ewe lamb, which he had bought and nourished up: and it grew up together with him, and with his children; it did eat of his own meat, and drank of his own cup, and lay in his bosom, and was unto him as a daughter. (4)And there came a traveller unto the rich man, and he spared to take of his own flock and of his own herd, to dress for the wayfaring man that was come unto him; but took the poor man's lamb, and dressed it for the man that was come to him.
(5)And David's anger was greatly kindled against the man; and he said to Nathan, As the LORD liveth, the man that hath done this thing shall surely die: (6)And he shall restore the lamb fourfold, because he did this thing, and because he had no pity.
(7)And Nathan said to David, Thou art the man. Thus saith the LORD God of Israel, I anointed thee king over Israel, and I delivered thee out of the hand of Saul; (8)And I gave thee thy master's house, and thy master's wives into thy bosom, and gave thee the house of Israel and of Judah; and if that had been too little, I would moreover have given unto thee such and such things. (9)Wherefore hast thou despised the commandment of the LORD, to do evil in his sight? thou hast killed Uriah the Hittite with the sword, and hast taken his wife to be thy wife, and hast slain him with the sword of the children of Ammon.
(10)Now therefore the sword shall never depart from thine house; because thou hast despised me, and hast taken the wife of Uriah the Hittite to be thy wife.
(11)Thus saith the LORD, Behold, I will raise up evil against thee out of thine own house, and I will take thy wives before thine eyes, and give them unto thy neighbour, and he shall lie with thy wives in the sight of this sun. (12)For thou didst it secretly: but I will do this thing before all Israel, and before the sun.
(13)And David said unto Nathan, I have sinned against the LORD. And Nathan said unto David, The LORD also hath put away thy sin; thou shalt not die. (14)Howbeit, because by this deed thou hast given great occasion to the enemies of the LORD to blaspheme, the child also that is born unto thee shall surely die.
(15)And Nathan departed unto his house. And the LORD struck the child that Uriah's wife bare unto David, and it was very sick. (16)David therefore besought God for the child; and David fasted, and went in, and lay all night upon the earth. (17)And the elders of his house arose, and went to him, to raise him up from the earth: but he would not, neither did he eat bread with them.
(18)And it came to pass on the seventh day, that the child died. And the servants of David feared to tell him that the child was dead: for they said, Behold, while the child was yet alive, we spake unto him, and he would not hearken unto our voice: how will he then vex himself, if we tell him that the child is dead? (19)But when David saw that his servants whispered, David perceived that the child was dead: therefore David said unto his servants, Is the child dead? And they said, He is dead.
(20)Then David arose from the earth, and washed, and anointed himself, and changed his apparel, and came into the house of the LORD, and worshipped: then he came to his own house; and when he required, they set bread before him, and he did eat.
(21)Then said his servants unto him, What thing is this that thou hast done? thou didst fast and weep for the child, while it was alive; but when the child was dead, thou didst rise and eat bread. (22)And he said, While the child was yet alive, I fasted and wept: for I said, Who can tell whether GOD will be gracious to me, that the child may live? (23)But now he is dead, wherefore should I fast? can I bring him back again? I shall go to him, but he shall not return to me. (24)And David comforted Bathsheba his wife, and went in unto her, and lay with her: and she bare a son, and he called his name Solomon: and the LORD loved him. (25)And he sent by the hand of Nathan the prophet; and he called his name Jedidiah, because of the LORD...
II Samuel 13:1-39
• David's son Amnon (of wife Ahinoam the Jezreelitess) incestuously lusts after his half-sister, Tamar (of wife Maachah, daughter of king Talmai)
• Amnon deceitfully gets Tamar into his bedchamber, then forcefully lays (i.e. rapes) with her
• Absalom (Tamar's brother), in vengeance for his sister, conspires to have Amnon killed
• (3) Scripture makes evident here that polygamous marriages have an especially adverse effect on the children
...(1)And it came to pass after this, that Absalom the son of David had a fair sister, whose name was Tamar; and Amnon the son of David loved her. (2)And Amnon was so vexed, that he fell sick for his sister Tamar; for she was a virgin; and Amnon thought it hard for him to do any thing to her.
(3)But Amnon had a friend, whose name was Jonadab, the son of Shimeah David's brother: and Jonadab was a very subtil man. (4)And he said unto him, Why art thou, being the king's son, lean from day to day? wilt thou not tell me? And Amnon said unto him, I love Tamar, my brother Absalom's sister. (5)And Jonadab said unto him, Lay thee down on thy bed, and make thyself sick: and when thy father cometh to see thee, say unto him, I pray thee, let my sister Tamar come, and give me meat, and dress the meat in my sight, that I may see it, and eat it at her hand.
(6)So Amnon lay down, and made himself sick: and when the king was come to see him, Amnon said unto the king, I pray thee, let Tamar my sister come, and make me a couple of cakes in my sight, that I may eat at her hand.
(7)Then David sent home to Tamar, saying, Go now to thy brother Amnon's house, and dress him meat.
(8)So Tamar went to her brother Amnon's house; and he was laid down. And she took flour, and kneaded it, and made cakes in his sight, and did bake the cakes. (9)And she took a pan, and poured them out before him; but he refused to eat. And Amnon said, Have out all men from me. And they went out every man from him. (10)And Amnon said unto Tamar, Bring the meat into the chamber, that I may eat of thine hand. And Tamar took the cakes which she had made, and brought them into the chamber to Amnon her brother.
(11)And when she had brought them unto him to eat, he took hold of her, and said unto her, Come lie with me, my sister. (12)And she answered him, Nay, my brother, do not force me; for no such thing ought to be done in Israel: do not thou this folly. (13)And I, whither shall I cause my shame to go? and as for thee, thou shalt be as one of the fools in Israel. Now therefore, I pray thee, speak unto the king; for he will not withhold me from thee.
(14)Howbeit he would not hearken unto her voice: but, being stronger than she, forced her, and lay with her.
(15)Then Amnon hated her exceedingly; so that the hatred wherewith he hated her was greater than the love wherewith he had loved her. And Amnon said unto her, Arise, be gone.
(16)And she said unto him, There is no cause: this evil in sending me away is greater than the other that thou didst unto me. But he would not hearken unto her. (17)Then he called his servant that ministered unto him, and said, Put now this woman out from me, and bolt the door after her. (18)And she had a garment of divers colours upon her: for with such robes were the king's daughters that were virgins apparelled. Then his servant brought her out, and bolted the door after her. (19)And Tamar put ashes on her head, and rent her garment of divers colours that was on her, and laid her hand on her head, and went on crying. (20)And Absalom her brother said unto her, Hath Amnon thy brother been with thee? but hold now thy peace, my sister: he is thy brother; regard not this thing. So Tamar remained desolate in her brother Absalom's house.
(21)But when king David heard of all these things, he was very wroth. (22)And Absalom spake unto his brother Amnon neither good nor bad: for Absalom hated Amnon, because he had forced his sister Tamar.
(23)And it came to pass after two full years, that Absalom had sheepshearers in Baalhazor, which is beside Ephraim: and Absalom invited all the king's sons. (24)And Absalom came to the king, and said, Behold now, thy servant hath sheepshearers; let the king, I beseech thee, and his servants go with thy servant. (25)And the king said to Absalom, Nay, my son, let us not all now go, lest we be chargeable unto thee. And he pressed him: howbeit he would not go, but blessed him.
(26)Then said Absalom, If not, I pray thee, let my brother Amnon go with us. And the king said unto him, Why should he go with thee? (27)But Absalom pressed him, that he let Amnon and all the king's sons go with him.
(28)Now Absalom had commanded his servants, saying, Mark ye now when Amnon's heart is merry with wine, and when I say unto you, Smite Amnon; then kill him, fear not: have not I commanded you? be courageous, and be valiant. (29)And the servants of Absalom did unto Amnon as Absalom had commanded. Then all the king's sons arose, and every man gat him up upon his mule, and fled.
(30)And it came to pass, while they were in the way, that tidings came to David, saying, Absalom hath slain all the king's sons, and there is not one of them left.
(31)Then the king arose, and tare his garments, and lay on the earth; and all his servants stood by with their clothes rent. (32)And Jonadab, the son of Shimeah David's brother, answered and said, Let not my lord suppose that they have slain all the young men the king's sons; for Amnon only is dead: for by the appointment of Absalom this hath been determined from the day that he forced his sister Tamar. (33)Now therefore let not my lord the king take the thing to his heart, to think that all the king's sons are dead: for Amnon only is dead.
(34)But Absalom fled. And the young man that kept the watch lifted up his eyes, and looked, and, behold, there came much people by the way of the hill side behind him. (35)And Jonadab said unto the king, Behold, the king's sons come: as thy servant said, so it is. (36)And it came to pass, as soon as he had made an end of speaking, that, behold, the king's sons came, and lifted up their voice and wept: and the king also and all his servants wept very sore. (37)But Absalom fled, and went to Talmai, the son of Ammihud, king of Geshur. And David mourned for his son every day. (38)So Absalom fled, and went to Geshur, and was there three years. (39)And the soul of king David longed to go forth unto Absalom: for he was comforted concerning Amnon, seeing he was dead.
II Samuel 14:21-28
• Per God's judgment (II Samuel 12:10), David's son Absalom conspires to take the kingdom from him
• Interesting to note that Absalom, evidently, named his daughter after his sister, Tamar
...(21)And the king said unto Joab, Behold now, I have done this thing: go therefore, bring the young man Absalom again. (22)And Joab fell to the ground on his face, and bowed himself, and thanked the king: and Joab said, To day thy servant knoweth that I have found grace in thy sight, my lord, O king, in that the king hath fulfilled the request of his servant.
(23)So Joab arose and went to Geshur, and brought Absalom to Jerusalem. (24)And the king said, Let him turn to his own house, and let him not see my face. So Absalom returned to his own house, and saw not the king's face. (25)But in all Israel there was none to be so much praised as Absalom for his beauty: from the sole of his foot even to the crown of his head there was no blemish in him. (26)And when he polled his head, (for it was at every year's end that he polled it: because the hair was heavy on him, therefore he polled it:) he weighed the hair of his head at two hundred shekels after the king's weight. (27)And unto Absalom there were born three sons, and one daughter, whose name was Tamar: she was a woman of a fair countenance.
(28)So Absalom dwelt two full years in Jerusalem, and saw not the king's face...
II Samuel 15:1-18; 30-37
• Per God's judgment (II Samuel 12:10), David's son Absalom conspires to take the kingdom from him
...(1)And it came to pass after this, that Absalom prepared him chariots and horses, and fifty men to run before him. (2)And Absalom rose up early, and stood beside the way of the gate: and it was so, that when any man that had a controversy came to the king for judgment, then Absalom called unto him, and said, Of what city art thou? And he said, Thy servant is of one of the tribes of Israel. (3)And Absalom said unto him, See, thy matters are good and right; but there is no man deputed of the king to hear thee.
(4)Absalom said moreover, Oh that I were made judge in the land, that every man which hath any suit or cause might come unto me, and I would do him justice! (5)And it was so, that when any man came nigh to him to do him obeisance, he put forth his hand, and took him, and kissed him.
(6)And on this manner did Absalom to all Israel that came to the king for judgment: so Absalom stole the hearts of the men of Israel.
(7)And it came to pass after forty years, that Absalom said unto the king, I pray thee, let me go and pay my vow, which I have vowed unto the LORD, in Hebron. (8)For thy servant vowed a vow while I abode at Geshur in Syria, saying, If the LORD shall bring me again indeed to Jerusalem, then I will serve the LORD.
(9)And the king said unto him, Go in peace. So he arose, and went to Hebron.
(10)But Absalom sent spies throughout all the tribes of Israel, saying, As soon as ye hear the sound of the trumpet, then ye shall say, Absalom reigneth in Hebron. (11)And with Absalom went two hundred men out of Jerusalem, that were called; and they went in their simplicity, and they knew not any thing. (12)And Absalom sent for Ahithophel the Gilonite, David's counseller, from his city, even from Giloh, while he offered sacrifices. And the conspiracy was strong; for the people increased continually with Absalom.
(13)And there came a messenger to David, saying, The hearts of the men of Israel are after Absalom. (14)And David said unto all his servants that were with him at Jerusalem, Arise, and let us flee; for we shall not else escape from Absalom: make speed to depart, lest he overtake us suddenly, and bring evil upon us, and smite the city with the edge of the sword. (15)And the king's servants said unto the king, Behold, thy servants are ready to do whatsoever my lord the king shall appoint.
(16)And the king went forth, and all his household after him. And the king left ten women, which were concubines, to keep the house. (17)And the king went forth, and all the people after him, and tarried in a place that was far off. (18)And all his servants passed on beside him; and all the Cherethites, and all the Pelethites, and all the Gittites, six hundred men which came after him from Gath, passed on before the king...
...(30)And David went up by the ascent of mount Olivet, and wept as he went up, and had his head covered, and he went barefoot: and all the people that was with him covered every man his head, and they went up, weeping as they went up. (31)And one told David, saying, Ahithophel is among the conspirators with Absalom. And David said, O LORD, I pray thee, turn the counsel of Ahithophel into foolishness.
(32)And it came to pass, that when David was come to the top of the mount, where he worshipped God, behold, Hushai the Archite came to meet him with his coat rent, and earth upon his head: (33)Unto whom David said, If thou passest on with me, then thou shalt be a burden unto me: (34)But if thou return to the city, and say unto Absalom, I will be thy servant, O king; as I have been thy father's servant hitherto, so will I now also be thy servant: then mayest thou for me defeat the counsel of Ahithophel.
(35)And hast thou not there with thee Zadok and Abiathar the priests? therefore it shall be, that what thing soever thou shalt hear out of the king's house, thou shalt tell it to Zadok and Abiathar the priests.
(36)Behold, they have there with them their two sons, Ahimaaz Zadok's son, and Jonathan Abiathar's son; and by them ye shall send unto me every thing that ye can hear.
(37)So Hushai David's friend came into the city, and Absalom came into Jerusalem...
II Samuel 16:15-23
• As the Lord declared (II Samuel 12:11), David's "neighbor" (Absalom) publicly sleeps with David's concubine wives, shaming him.
...(15)And Absalom, and all the people the men of Israel, came to Jerusalem, and Ahithophel with him. (16)And it came to pass, when Hushai the Archite, David's friend, was come unto Absalom, that Hushai said unto Absalom, God save the king, God save the king. (17)And Absalom said to Hushai, Is this thy kindness to thy friend? why wentest thou not with thy friend? (18)And Hushai said unto Absalom, Nay; but whom the LORD, and this people, and all the men of Israel, choose, his will I be, and with him will I abide. (19)And again, whom should I serve? should I not serve in the presence of his son? as I have served in thy father's presence, so will I be in thy presence.
(20)Then said Absalom to Ahithophel, Give counsel among you what we shall do. (21)And Ahithophel said unto Absalom, Go in unto thy father's concubines, which he hath left to keep the house; and all Israel shall hear that thou art abhorred of thy father: then shall the hands of all that are with thee be strong.
(22)So they spread Absalom a tent upon the top of the house; and Absalom went in unto his father's concubines in the sight of all Israel.
(23)And the counsel of Ahithophel, which he counselled in those days, was as if a man had inquired at the oracle of God: so was all the counsel of Ahithophel both with David and with Absalom...
II Samuel 18:5-21; 31-33
• Joab conspires to kill Absalom (against the king's orders). David greatly mourns for the death of his son.
...(5)And the king commanded Joab and Abishai and Ittai, saying, Deal gently for my sake with the young man, even with Absalom. And all the people heard when the king gave all the captains charge concerning Absalom.
(6)So the people went out into the field against Israel: and the battle was in the wood of Ephraim; (7)Where the people of Israel were slain before the servants of David, and there was there a great slaughter that day of twenty thousand men. (8)For the battle was there scattered over the face of all the country: and the wood devoured more people that day than the sword devoured.
(9)And Absalom met the servants of David. And Absalom rode upon a mule, and the mule went under the thick boughs of a great oak, and his head caught hold of the oak, and he was taken up between the heaven and the earth; and the mule that was under him went away.
(10)And a certain man saw it, and told Joab, and said, Behold, I saw Absalom hanged in an oak.
(11)And Joab said unto the man that told him, And, behold, thou sawest him, and why didst thou not smite him there to the ground? and I would have given thee ten shekels of silver, and a girdle. (12)And the man said unto Joab, Though I should receive a thousand shekels of silver in mine hand, yet would I not put forth mine hand against the king's son: for in our hearing the king charged thee and Abishai and Ittai, saying, Beware that none touch the young man Absalom. (13)Otherwise I should have wrought falsehood against mine own life: for there is no matter hid from the king, and thou thyself wouldest have set thyself against me.
(14)Then said Joab, I may not tarry thus with thee. And he took three darts in his hand, and thrust them through the heart of Absalom, while he was yet alive in the midst of the oak.
(15)And ten young men that bare Joab's armour compassed about and smote Absalom, and slew him.
(16)And Joab blew the trumpet, and the people returned from pursuing after Israel: for Joab held back the people. (17)And they took Absalom, and cast him into a great pit in the wood, and laid a very great heap of stones upon him: and all Israel fled every one to his tent.
(18)Now Absalom in his lifetime had taken and reared up for himself a pillar, which is in the king's dale: for he said, I have no son to keep my name in remembrance: and he called the pillar after his own name: and it is called unto this day, Absalom's place.
(19)Then said Ahimaaz the son of Zadok, Let me now run, and bear the king tidings, how that the LORD hath avenged him of his enemies. (20)And Joab said unto him, Thou shalt not bear tidings this day, but thou shalt bear tidings another day: but this day thou shalt bear no tidings, because the king's son is dead.
(21)Then said Joab to Cushi, Go tell the king what thou hast seen. And Cushi bowed himself unto Joab, and ran...
...(31)And, behold, Cushi came; and Cushi said, Tidings, my lord the king: for the LORD hath avenged thee this day of all them that rose up against thee. (32)And the king said unto Cushi, Is the young man Absalom safe? And Cushi answered, The enemies of my lord the king, and all that rise against thee to do thee hurt, be as that young man is.
(33)And the king was much moved, and went up to the chamber over the gate, and wept: and as he went, thus he said, O my son Absalom, my son, my son Absalom! would God I had died for thee, O Absalom, my son, my son!
II Samuel 19:1-7
(1)And it was told Joab, Behold, the king weepeth and mourneth for Absalom.
(2)And the victory that day was turned into mourning unto all the people: for the people heard say that day how the king was grieved for his son. (3)And the people gat them by stealth that day into the city, as people being ashamed steal away when they flee in battle. (4)But the king covered his face, and the king cried with a loud voice, O my son Absalom, O Absalom, my son, my son!
(5)And Joab came into the house to the king, and said, Thou hast shamed this day the faces of all thy servants, which this day have saved thy life, and the lives of thy sons and of thy daughters, and the lives of thy wives, and the lives of thy concubines; (6)In that thou lovest thine enemies, and hatest thy friends. For thou hast declared this day, that thou regardest neither princes nor servants: for this day I perceive, that if Absalom had lived, and all we had died this day, then it had pleased thee well.
(7)Now therefore arise, go forth, and speak comfortably unto thy servants: for I swear by the LORD, if thou go not forth, there will not tarry one with thee this night: and that will be worse unto thee than all the evil that befell thee from thy youth until now...
II Samuel 20:1-4
• David repents and puts an end to sleeping with his concubines; caring for them as widows for the rest of their lives (v.3)
...(1)And there happened to be there a man of Belial, whose name was Sheba, the son of Bichri, a Benjamite: and he blew a trumpet, and said, We have no part in David, neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: every man to his tents, O Israel.
(2)So every man of Israel went up from after David, and followed Sheba the son of Bichri: but the men of Judah clave unto their king, from Jordan even to Jerusalem. (3)And David came to his house at Jerusalem; and the king took the ten women his concubines, whom he had left to keep the house, and put them in ward, and fed them, but went not in unto them. So they were shut up unto the day of their death, living in widowhood.
(4)Then said the king to Amasa, Assemble me the men of Judah within three days, and be thou here present...
II Samuel 21:1-14
• Account of Saul's concubine wife's daughter, Rizpah
...(1)Then there was a famine in the days of David three years, year after year; and David inquired of the LORD. And the LORD answered, It is for Saul, and for his bloody house, because he slew the Gibeonites.
(2)And the king called the Gibeonites, and said unto them; (now the Gibeonites were not of the children of Israel, but of the remnant of the Amorites; and the children of Israel had sworn unto them: and Saul sought to slay them in his zeal to the children of Israel and Judah.) (3)Wherefore David said unto the Gibeonites, What shall I do for you? and wherewith shall I make the atonement, that ye may bless the inheritance of the LORD?
(4)And the Gibeonites said unto him, We will have no silver nor gold of Saul, nor of his house; neither for us shalt thou kill any man in Israel. And he said, What ye shall say, that will I do for you. (5)And they answered the king, The man that consumed us, and that devised against us that we should be destroyed from remaining in any of the coasts of Israel, (6)Let seven men of his sons be delivered unto us, and we will hang them up unto the LORD in Gibeah of Saul, whom the LORD did choose. And the king said, I will give them.
(7)But the king spared Mephibosheth, the son of Jonathan the son of Saul, because of the LORD'S oath that was between them, between David and Jonathan the son of Saul. (8)But the king took the two sons of Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, whom she bare unto Saul, Armoni and Mephibosheth; and the five sons of Michal the daughter of Saul, whom she brought up for Adriel the son of Barzillai the Meholathite: (9)And he delivered them into the hands of the Gibeonites, and they hanged them in the hill before the LORD: and they fell all seven together, and were put to death in the days of harvest, in the first days, in the beginning of barley harvest.
(10)And Rizpah the daughter of Aiah took sackcloth, and spread it for her upon the rock, from the beginning of harvest until water dropped upon them out of heaven, and suffered neither the birds of the air to rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night. (11)And it was told David what Rizpah the daughter of Aiah, the concubine of Saul, had done. (12)And David went and took the bones of Saul and the bones of Jonathan his son from the men of Jabeshgilead, which had stolen them from the street of Bethshan, where the Philistines had hanged them, when the Philistines had slain Saul in Gilboa: (13)And he brought up from thence the bones of Saul and the bones of Jonathan his son; and they gathered the bones of them that were hanged.
(14)And the bones of Saul and Jonathan his son buried they in the country of Benjamin in Zelah, in the sepulchre of Kish his father: and they performed all that the king commanded. And after that God was intreated for the land...
I Kings 1:1-53
• David's polygamous days are far behind him (I Kings 1:4)
• Adonijah (of David's other wife, Haggith) attempts to usurp the throne
• (4) Scripture makes evident here that polygamous marriages have an especially adverse effect on the children
...(1)Now king David was old and stricken in years; and they covered him with clothes, but he gat no heat.
(2)Wherefore his servants said unto him, Let there be sought for my lord the king a young virgin: and let her stand before the king, and let her cherish him, and let her lie in thy bosom, that my lord the king may get heat. (3)So they sought for a fair damsel throughout all the coasts of Israel, and found Abishag a Shunammite, and brought her to the king. (4)And the damsel was very fair, and cherished the king, and ministered to him: but the king knew her not.
(5)Then Adonijah the son of Haggith exalted himself, saying, I will be king: and he prepared him chariots and horsemen, and fifty men to run before him. (6)And his father had not displeased him at any time in saying, Why hast thou done so? and he also was a very goodly man; and his mother bare him after Absalom. (7)And he conferred with Joab the son of Zeruiah, and with Abiathar the priest: and they following Adonijah helped him. (8)But Zadok the priest, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and Nathan the prophet, and Shimei, and Rei, and the mighty men which belonged to David, were not with Adonijah.
(9)And Adonijah slew sheep and oxen and fat cattle by the stone of Zoheleth, which is by Enrogel, and called all his brethren the king's sons, and all the men of Judah the king's servants: (10)But Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah, and the mighty men, and Solomon his brother, he called not.
(11)Wherefore Nathan spake unto Bathsheba the mother of Solomon, saying, Hast thou not heard that Adonijah the son of Haggith doth reign, and David our lord knoweth it not? (12)Now therefore come, let me, I pray thee, give thee counsel, that thou mayest save thine own life, and the life of thy son Solomon. (13)Go and get thee in unto king David, and say unto him, Didst not thou, my lord, O king, swear unto thine handmaid, saying, Assuredly Solomon thy son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne? why then doth Adonijah reign?
(14)Behold, while thou yet talkest there with the king, I also will come in after thee, and confirm thy words.
(15)And Bathsheba went in unto the king into the chamber: and the king was very old; and Abishag the Shunammite ministered unto the king. (16)And Bathsheba bowed, and did obeisance unto the king. And the king said, What wouldest thou?
(17)And she said unto him, My lord, thou swarest by the LORD thy God unto thine handmaid, saying, Assuredly Solomon thy son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne. (18)And now, behold, Adonijah reigneth; and now, my lord the king, thou knowest it not: (19)And he hath slain oxen and fat cattle and sheep in abundance, and hath called all the sons of the king, and Abiathar the priest, and Joab the captain of the host: but Solomon thy servant hath he not called. (20)And thou, my lord, O king, the eyes of all Israel are upon thee, that thou shouldest tell them who shall sit on the throne of my lord the king after him. (21)Otherwise it shall come to pass, when my lord the king shall sleep with his fathers, that I and my son Solomon shall be counted offenders. (22)And, lo, while she yet talked with the king, Nathan the prophet also came in. (23)And they told the king, saying, Behold Nathan the prophet. And when he was come in before the king, he bowed himself before the king with his face to the ground.
(24)And Nathan said, My lord, O king, hast thou said, Adonijah shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne? (25)For he is gone down this day, and hath slain oxen and fat cattle and sheep in abundance, and hath called all the king's sons, and the captains of the host, and Abiathar the priest; and, behold, they eat and drink before him, and say, God save king Adonijah. (26)But me, even me thy servant, and Zadok the priest, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and thy servant Solomon, hath he not called.
(27)Is this thing done by my lord the king, and thou hast not shewed it unto thy servant, who should sit on the throne of my lord the king after him?
(28)Then king David answered and said, Call me Bathsheba. And she came into the king's presence, and stood before the king. (29)And the king sware, and said, As the LORD liveth, that hath redeemed my soul out of all distress, (30)Even as I sware unto thee by the LORD God of Israel, saying, Assuredly Solomon thy son shall reign after me, and he shall sit upon my throne in my stead; even so will I certainly do this day. (31)Then Bathsheba bowed with her face to the earth, and did reverence to the king, and said, Let my lord king David live for ever. (32)And king David said, Call me Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada. And they came before the king. (33)The king also said unto them, Take with you the servants of your lord, and cause Solomon my son to ride upon mine own mule, and bring him down to Gihon: (34)And let Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet anoint him there king over Israel: and blow ye with the trumpet, and say, God save king Solomon. (35)Then ye shall come up after him, that he may come and sit upon my throne; for he shall be king in my stead: and I have appointed him to be ruler over Israel and over Judah.
(36)And Benaiah the son of Jehoiada answered the king, and said, Amen: the LORD God of my lord the king say so. (37)As the LORD hath been with my lord the king, even so be he with Solomon, and make his throne greater than the throne of my lord king David.
(38)So Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and the Cherethites, and the Pelethites, went down, and caused Solomon to ride upon king David's mule, and brought him to Gihon. (39)And Zadok the priest took an horn of oil out of the tabernacle, and anointed Solomon. And they blew the trumpet; and all the people said, God save king Solomon.
(40)And all the people came up after him, and the people piped with pipes, and rejoiced with great joy, so that the earth rent with the sound of them.
(41)And Adonijah and all the guests that were with him heard it as they had made an end of eating. And when Joab heard the sound of the trumpet, he said, Wherefore is this noise of the city being in an uproar? (42)And while he yet spake, behold, Jonathan the son of Abiathar the priest came: and Adonijah said unto him, Come in; for thou art a valiant man, and bringest good tidings.
(43)And Jonathan answered and said to Adonijah, Verily our lord king David hath made Solomon king. (44)And the king hath sent with him Zadok the priest, and Nathan the prophet, and Benaiah the son of Jehoiada, and the Cherethites, and the Pelethites, and they have caused him to ride upon the king's mule: (45)And Zadok the priest and Nathan the prophet have anointed him king in Gihon: and they are come up from thence rejoicing, so that the city rang again. This is the noise that ye have heard.
(46)And also Solomon sitteth on the throne of the kingdom.
(47)And moreover the king's servants came to bless our lord king David, saying, God make the name of Solomon better than thy name, and make his throne greater than thy throne. And the king bowed himself upon the bed. (48)And also thus said the king, Blessed be the LORD God of Israel, which hath given one to sit on my throne this day, mine eyes even seeing it.
(49)And all the guests that were with Adonijah were afraid, and rose up, and went every man his way.
(50)And Adonijah feared because of Solomon, and arose, and went, and caught hold on the horns of the altar. (51)And it was told Solomon, saying, Behold, Adonijah feareth king Solomon: for, lo, he hath caught hold on the horns of the altar, saying, Let king Solomon swear unto me to day that he will not slay his servant with the sword. (52)And Solomon said, If he will shew himself a worthy man, there shall not an hair of him fall to the earth: but if wickedness shall be found in him, he shall die.
(53)So king Solomon sent, and they brought him down from the altar. And he came and bowed himself to king Solomon: and Solomon said unto him, Go to thine house...
I Kings 11:1-14
• David's son, king Solomon, takes MANY concubines and wives (1,000!), leading Israel into gross idolatry
• In response and judgment, God declares that He will rend the kingdom from Solomon (beginning with the reign of his son, Rehoboam)
...(1)But king Solomon loved many strange women, together with the daughter of Pharaoh, women of the Moabites, Ammonites, Edomites, Zidonians, and Hittites; (2)Of the nations concerning which the LORD said unto the children of Israel, Ye shall not go in to them, neither shall they come in unto you: for surely they will turn away your heart after their gods: Solomon clave unto these in love.
(3)And he had seven hundred wives, princesses, and three hundred concubines: and his wives turned away his heart. (4)For it came to pass, when Solomon was old, that his wives turned away his heart after other gods: and his heart was not perfect with the LORD his God, as was the heart of David his father. (5)For Solomon went after Ashtoreth the goddess of the Zidonians, and after Milcom the abomination of the Ammonites. (6)And Solomon did evil in the sight of the LORD, and went not fully after the LORD, as did David his father. (7)Then did Solomon build an high place for Chemosh, the abomination of Moab, in the hill that is before Jerusalem, and for Molech, the abomination of the children of Ammon.
(8)And likewise did he for all his strange wives, which burnt incense and sacrificed unto their gods.
(9)And the LORD was angry with Solomon, because his heart was turned from the LORD God of Israel, which had appeared unto him twice, (10)And had commanded him concerning this thing, that he should not go after other gods: but he kept not that which the LORD commanded. (11)Wherefore the LORD said unto Solomon, Forasmuch as this is done of thee, and thou hast not kept my covenant and my statutes, which I have commanded thee, I will surely rend the kingdom from thee, and will give it to thy servant.
(12)Notwithstanding in thy days I will not do it for David thy father's sake: but I will rend it out of the hand of thy son. (13)Howbeit I will not rend away all the kingdom; but will give one tribe to thy son for David my servant's sake, and for Jerusalem's sake which I have chosen.
(14)And the LORD stirred up an adversary unto Solomon, Hadad the Edomite: he was of the king's seed in Edom...
I Kings 12:1-19
• Per God's judgment, king Rehoboam causes a rift, provoking Israel (save for Judah) to permanently secede from his rule
...(1)And Rehoboam went to Shechem: for all Israel were come to Shechem to make him king.
(2)And it came to pass, when Jeroboam the son of Nebat, who was yet in Egypt, heard of it, (for he was fled from the presence of king Solomon, and Jeroboam dwelt in Egypt;) (3)That they sent and called him. And Jeroboam and all the congregation of Israel came, and spake unto Rehoboam, saying, (4)Thy father made our yoke grievous: now therefore make thou the grievous service of thy father, and his heavy yoke which he put upon us, lighter, and we will serve thee.
(5)And he said unto them, Depart yet for three days, then come again to me. And the people departed.
(6)And king Rehoboam consulted with the old men, that stood before Solomon his father while he yet lived, and said, How do ye advise that I may answer this people? (7)And they spake unto him, saying, If thou wilt be a servant unto this people this day, and wilt serve them, and answer them, and speak good words to them, then they will be thy servants for ever.
(8)But he forsook the counsel of the old men, which they had given him, and consulted with the young men that were grown up with him, and which stood before him: (9)And he said unto them, What counsel give ye that we may answer this people, who have spoken to me, saying, Make the yoke which thy father did put upon us lighter? (10)And the young men that were grown up with him spake unto him, saying, Thus shalt thou speak unto this people that spake unto thee, saying, Thy father made our yoke heavy, but make thou it lighter unto us; thus shalt thou say unto them, My little finger shall be thicker than my father's loins. (11)And now whereas my father did lade you with a heavy yoke, I will add to your yoke: my father hath chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.
(12)So Jeroboam and all the people came to Rehoboam the third day, as the king had appointed, saying, Come to me again the third day. (13)And the king answered the people roughly, and forsook the old men's counsel that they gave him; (14)And spake to them after the counsel of the young men, saying, My father also made your yoke heavy, and I will add to your yoke: my father chastised you with whips, but I will chastise you with scorpions.
(15)Wherefore the king hearkened not unto the people; for the cause was from the LORD, that he might perform his saying, which the LORD spake by Ahijah the Shilonite unto Jeroboam the son of Nebat.
(16)So when all Israel saw that the king hearkened not unto them, the people answered the king, saying, What portion have we in David? neither have we inheritance in the son of Jesse: to your tents, O Israel: now see to thine own house, David. So Israel departed unto their tents.
(17)But as for the children of Israel which dwelt in the cities of Judah, Rehoboam reigned over them. (18)Then king Rehoboam sent Adoram, who was over the tribute; and all Israel stoned him with stones, that he died. Therefore king Rehoboam made speed to get him up to his chariot, to flee to Jerusalem.
(19)So Israel rebelled against the house of David unto this day...
I Kings 20:1-12
• King Benhadad of Syria demands king Ahab's wives and children
...(1)And Benhadad the king of Syria gathered all his host together: and there were thirty and two kings with him, and horses, and chariots: and he went up and besieged Samaria, and warred against it. (2)And he sent messengers to Ahab king of Israel into the city, and said unto him, Thus saith Benhadad, (3)Thy silver and thy gold is mine; thy wives also and thy children, even the goodliest, are mine.
(4)And the king of Israel answered and said, My lord, O king, according to thy saying, I am thine, and all that I have. (5)And the messengers came again, and said, Thus speaketh Benhadad, saying, Although I have sent unto thee, saying, Thou shalt deliver me thy silver, and thy gold, and thy wives, and thy children; (6)Yet I will send my servants unto thee to morrow about this time, and they shall search thine house, and the houses of thy servants; and it shall be, that whatsoever is pleasant in thine eyes, they shall put it in their hand, and take it away.
(7)Then the king of Israel called all the elders of the land, and said, Mark, I pray you, and see how this man seeketh mischief: for he sent unto me for my wives, and for my children, and for my silver, and for my gold; and I denied him not. (8)And all the elders and all the people said unto him, Hearken not unto him, nor consent. (9)Wherefore he said unto the messengers of Benhadad, Tell my lord the king, All that thou didst send for to thy servant at the first I will do: but this thing I may not do. And the messengers departed, and brought him word again.
(10)And Benhadad sent unto him, and said, The gods do so unto me, and more also, if the dust of Samaria shall suffice for handfuls for all the people that follow me. (11)And the king of Israel answered and said, Tell him, Let not him that girdeth on his harness boast himself as he that putteth it off.
(12)And it came to pass, when Benhadad heard this message, as he was drinking, he and the kings in the pavilions, that he said unto his servants, Set yourselves in array. And they set themselves in array against the city...
I Chronicles 1:28-34
• I Chronicles' genealogy of Abraham: includes his concubine wife, Keturah
...(28)The sons of Abraham; Isaac, and Ishmael.
(29)These are their generations: The firstborn of Ishmael, Nebaioth; then Kedar, and Adbeel, and Mibsam, (30)Mishma, and Dumah, Massa, Hadad, and Tema, (31)Jetur, Naphish, and Kedemah. These are the sons of Ishmael. (32)Now the sons of Keturah, Abraham's concubine: she bare Zimran, and Jokshan, and Medan, and Midian, and Ishbak, and Shuah. And the sons of Jokshan; Sheba, and Dedan. (33)And the sons of Midian; Ephah, and Epher, and Henoch, and Abida, and Eldaah. All these are the sons of Keturah.
(34)And Abraham begat Isaac. The sons of Isaac; Esau and Israel...
I Chronicles 2:25-30; 42-55
• A record of the additional wives of brothers Jerahmeel (unnamed first wife & Atarah) and Caleb (unnamed first wife, Ephah & Maachah)
...(25)And the sons of Jerahmeel the firstborn of Hezron were, Ram the firstborn, and Bunah, and Oren, and Ozem, and Ahijah. (26)Jerahmeel had also another wife, whose name was Atarah; she was the mother of Onam. (27)And the sons of Ram the firstborn of Jerahmeel were, Maaz, and Jamin, and Eker. (28)And the sons of Onam were, Shammai, and Jada. And the sons of Shammai; Nadab, and Abishur. (29)And the name of the wife of Abishur was Abihail, and she bare him Ahban, and Molid. (30)And the sons of Nadab; Seled, and Appaim: but Seled died without children...
...(42)Now the sons of Caleb the brother of Jerahmeel were, Mesha his firstborn, which was the father of Ziph; and the sons of Mareshah the father of Hebron. (43)And the sons of Hebron; Korah, and Tappuah, and Rekem, and Shema. (44)And Shema begat Raham, the father of Jorkoam: and Rekem begat Shammai. (45)And the son of Shammai Maon: and Maon was the father of Bethzur. (46)And Ephah, Caleb's concubine, bare Haran, and Moza, and Gazez: and Haran begat Gazez.
(47)And the sons of Jahdai; Regem, and Jotham, and Geshan, and Pelet, and Ephah, and Shaaph. (48)Maachah, Caleb's concubine, bare Sheber, and Tirhanah. (49)She bare also Shaaph the father of Madmannah, Sheva the father of Machbenah, and the father of Gibea: and the daughter of Caleb was Achsah. (50)These were the sons of Caleb the son of Hur, the firstborn of Ephratah; Shobal the father of Kirjathjearim, (51)Salma the father of Bethlehem, Hareph the father of Bethgader. (52)And Shobal the father of Kirjathjearim had sons; Haroeh, and half of the Manahethites. (53)And the families of Kirjathjearim; the Ithrites, and the Puhites, and the Shumathites, and the Mishraites; of them came the Zareathites, and the Eshtaulites. (54)The sons of Salma; Bethlehem, and the Netophathites, Ataroth, the house of Joab, and half of the Manahethites, the Zorites.
(55)And the families of the scribes which dwelt at Jabez; the Tirathites, the Shimeathites, and Suchathites. These are the Kenites that came of Hemath, the father of the house of Rechab.
I Chronicles 3:1-9
• I Chornicles account of the wives of David (besides his concubines) which bore him children, in Hebron and Jerusalem
(1)Now these were the sons of David, which were born unto him in Hebron; the firstborn Amnon, of Ahinoam the Jezreelitess; the second Daniel, of Abigail the Carmelitess: (2)The third, Absalom the son of Maachah the daughter of Talmai king of Geshur: the fourth, Adonijah the son of Haggith: (3)The fifth, Shephatiah of Abital: the sixth, Ithream by Eglah his wife. (4)These six were born unto him in Hebron; and there he reigned seven years and six months: and in Jerusalem he reigned thirty and three years.
(5)And these were born unto him in Jerusalem; Shimea, and Shobab, and Nathan, and Solomon, four, of Bathshua the daughter of Ammiel: (6)Ibhar also, and Elishama, and Eliphelet, (7)And Nogah, and Nepheg, and Japhia, (8)And Elishama, and Eliada, and Eliphelet, nine.
(9)These were all the sons of David, beside the sons of the concubines, and Tamar their sister...
I Chronicles 7:13-27
• king Manasseh had a concubine, as well (an unnamed Aramitess)
...(13)The sons of Naphtali; Jahziel, and Guni, and Jezer, and Shallum, the sons of Bilhah.
(14)The sons of Manasseh; Ashriel, whom she bare: (but his concubine the Aramitess bare Machir the father of Gilead: (15)And Machir took to wife the sister of Huppim and Shuppim, whose sister's name was Maachah;) and the name of the second was Zelophehad: and Zelophehad had daughters. (16)And Maachah the wife of Machir bare a son, and she called his name Peresh; and the name of his brother was Sheresh; and his sons were Ulam and Rakem. (17)And the sons of Ulam; Bedan. These were the sons of Gilead, the son of Machir, the son of Manasseh. (18)And his sister Hammoleketh bare Ishod, and Abiezer, and Mahalah. (19)And the sons of Shemida were, Ahian, and Shechem, and Likhi, and Aniam.
(20)And the sons of Ephraim; Shuthelah, and Bered his son, and Tahath his son, and Eladah his son, and Tahath his son, (21)And Zabad his son, and Shuthelah his son, and Ezer, and Elead, whom the men of Gath that were born in that land slew, because they came down to take away their cattle. (22)And Ephraim their father mourned many days, and his brethren came to comfort him. (23)And when he went in to his wife, she conceived, and bare a son, and he called his name Beriah, because it went evil with his house. (24)(And his daughter was Sherah, who built Bethhoron the nether, and the upper, and Uzzensherah.) (25)And Rephah was his son, also Resheph, and Telah his son, and Tahan his son, (26)Laadan his son, Ammihud his son, Elishama his son, (27)Non his son, Jehoshua his son...
I Chronicles 14:1-9
• Additional account of David's obtained wives, while at Jerusalem
...(1)Now Hiram king of Tyre sent messengers to David, and timber of cedars, with masons and carpenters, to build him an house. (2)And David perceived that the LORD had confirmed him king over Israel, for his kingdom was lifted up on high, because of his people Israel.
(3)And David took more wives at Jerusalem: and David begat more sons and daughters. (4)Now these are the names of his children which he had in Jerusalem; Shammua, and Shobab, Nathan, and Solomon, (5)And Ibhar, and Elishua, and Elpalet, (6)And Nogah, and Nepheg, and Japhia, (7)And Elishama, and Beeliada, and Eliphalet.
(8)And when the Philistines heard that David was anointed king over all Israel, all the Philistines went up to seek David. And David heard of it, and went out against them. (9)And the Philistines came and spread themselves in the valley of Rephaim...
II Chronicles 11:18-23
• king Rehoboam, son of Solomon, had 78 wives/concubines total (while loving Maachah, above all) (II Chronicles 11:18-21)
• Like his father, Rehoboam evidently inherited his lust for multiple women (II Chronicles 11:23)
...(18)And Rehoboam took him Mahalath the daughter of Jerimoth the son of David to wife, and Abihail the daughter of Eliab the son of Jesse; (19)Which bare him children; Jeush, and Shamariah, and Zaham. (20)And after her he took Maachah the daughter of Absalom; which bare him Abijah, and Attai, and Ziza, and Shelomith. (21)And Rehoboam loved Maachah the daughter of Absalom above all his wives and his concubines: (for he took eighteen wives, and threescore concubines; and begat twenty and eight sons, and threescore daughters.) (22)And Rehoboam made Abijah the son of Maachah the chief, to be ruler among his brethren: for he thought to make him king. (23)And he dealt wisely, and dispersed of all his children throughout all the countries of Judah and Benjamin, unto every fenced city: and he gave them victual in abundance. And he desired many wives...
II Chronicles 13:1-3; 13-22
• king Abijah: 14 wives (II Chronicles 13:21)
...(1)Now in the eighteenth year of king Jeroboam began Abijah to reign over Judah.
(2)He reigned three years in Jerusalem. His mother's name also was Michaiah the daughter of Uriel of Gibeah. And there was war between Abijah and Jeroboam. (3)And Abijah set the battle in array with an army of valiant men of war, even four hundred thousand chosen men: Jeroboam also set the battle in array against him with eight hundred thousand chosen men, being mighty men of valour...
...(13)But Jeroboam caused an ambushment to come about behind them: so they were before Judah, and the ambushment was behind them. (14)And when Judah looked back, behold, the battle was before and behind: and they cried unto the LORD, and the priests sounded with the trumpets. (15)Then the men of Judah gave a shout: and as the men of Judah shouted, it came to pass, that God smote Jeroboam and all Israel before Abijah and Judah. (16)And the children of Israel fled before Judah: and God delivered them into their hand.
(17)And Abijah and his people slew them with a great slaughter: so there fell down slain of Israel five hundred thousand chosen men. (18)Thus the children of Israel were brought under at that time, and the children of Judah prevailed, because they relied upon the LORD God of their fathers. (19)And Abijah pursued after Jeroboam, and took cities from him, Bethel with the towns thereof, and Jeshanah with the towns thereof, and Ephrain with the towns thereof.
(20)Neither did Jeroboam recover strength again in the days of Abijah: and the LORD struck him, and he died.
(21)But Abijah waxed mighty, and married fourteen wives, and begat twenty and two sons, and sixteen daughters. (22)And the rest of the acts of Abijah, and his ways, and his sayings, are written in the story of the prophet Iddo...
II Chronicles 21:1-20
...(1)Now Jehoshaphat slept with his fathers, and was buried with his fathers in the city of David. And Jehoram his son reigned in his stead. (2)And he had brethren the sons of Jehoshaphat, Azariah, and Jehiel, and Zechariah, and Azariah, and Michael, and Shephatiah: all these were the sons of Jehoshaphat king of Israel. (3)And their father gave them great gifts of silver, and of gold, and of precious things, with fenced cities in Judah: but the kingdom gave he to Jehoram; because he was the firstborn.
(4)Now when Jehoram was risen up to the kingdom of his father, he strengthened himself, and slew all his brethren with the sword, and diverse also of the princes of Israel. (5)Jehoram was thirty and two years old when he began to reign, and he reigned eight years in Jerusalem. (6)And he walked in the way of the kings of Israel, like as did the house of Ahab: for he had the daughter of Ahab to wife: and he wrought that which was evil in the eyes of the LORD. (7)Howbeit the LORD would not destroy the house of David, because of the covenant that he had made with David, and as he promised to give a light to him and to his sons for ever.
(8)In his days the Edomites revolted from under the dominion of Judah, and made themselves a king. (9)Then Jehoram went forth with his princes, and all his chariots with him: and he rose up by night, and smote the Edomites which compassed him in, and the captains of the chariots. (10)So the Edomites revolted from under the hand of Judah unto this day. The same time also did Libnah revolt from under his hand; because he had forsaken the LORD God of his fathers. (11)Moreover he made high places in the mountains of Judah, and caused the inhabitants of Jerusalem to commit fornication, and compelled Judah thereto. (12)And there came a writing to him from Elijah the prophet, saying, Thus saith the LORD God of David thy father, Because thou hast not walked in the ways of Jehoshaphat thy father, nor in the ways of Asa king of Judah, (13)But hast walked in the way of the kings of Israel, and hast made Judah and the inhabitants of Jerusalem to go a whoring, like to the whoredoms of the house of Ahab, and also hast slain thy brethren of thy father's house, which were better than thyself: (14)Behold, with a great plague will the LORD smite thy people, and thy children, and thy wives, and all thy goods: (15)And thou shalt have great sickness by disease of thy bowels, until thy bowels fall out by reason of the sickness day by day.
(16)Moreover the LORD stirred up against Jehoram the spirit of the Philistines, and of the Arabians, that were near the Ethiopians: (17)And they came up into Judah, and brake into it, and carried away all the substance that was found in the king's house, and his sons also, and his wives; so that there was never a son left him, save Jehoahaz, the youngest of his sons.
(18)And after all this the LORD smote him in his bowels with an incurable disease. (19)And it came to pass, that in process of time, after the end of two years, his bowels fell out by reason of his sickness: so he died of sore diseases. And his people made no burning for him, like the burning of his fathers. (20)Thirty and two years old was he when he began to reign, and he reigned in Jerusalem eight years, and departed without being desired. Howbeit they buried him in the city of David, but not in the sepulchres of the kings...
II Chronicles 24:1-7
• Jehoiada the priest: two wives (II Chronicles 24:3)
...(1)Joash was seven years old when he began to reign, and he reigned forty years in Jerusalem. His mother's name also was Zibiah of Beersheba. (2)And Joash did that which was right in the sight of the LORD all the days of Jehoiada the priest. (3)And Jehoiada took for him two wives; and he begat sons and daughters.
(4)And it came to pass after this, that Joash was minded to repair the house of the LORD. (5)And he gathered together the priests and the Levites, and said to them, Go out unto the cities of Judah, and gather of all Israel money to repair the house of your God from year to year, and see that ye hasten the matter. Howbeit the Levites hastened it not. (6)And the king called for Jehoiada the chief, and said unto him, Why hast thou not required of the Levites to bring in out of Judah and out of Jerusalem the collection, according to the commandment of Moses the servant of the LORD, and of the congregation of Israel, for the tabernacle of witness? (7)For the sons of Athaliah, that wicked woman, had broken up the house of God; and also all the dedicated things of the house of the LORD did they bestow upon Baalim...
...(5)Now in Shushan the palace there was a certain Jew, whose name was Mordecai, the son of Jair, the son of Shimei, the son of Kish, a Benjamite; (6)Who had been carried away from Jerusalem with the captivity which had been carried away with Jeconiah king of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon had carried away. (7)And he brought up Hadassah, that is, Esther, his uncle's daughter: for she had neither father nor mother, and the maid was fair and beautiful; whom Mordecai, when her father and mother were dead, took for his own daughter. (8)So it came to pass, when the king's commandment and his decree was heard, and when many maidens were gathered together unto Shushan the palace, to the custody of Hegai, that Esther was brought also unto the king's house, to the custody of Hegai, keeper of the women. (9)And the maiden pleased him, and she obtained kindness of him; and he speedily gave her her things for purification, with such things as belonged to her, and seven maidens, which were meet to be given her, out of the king's house: and he preferred her and her maids unto the best place of the house of the women.
(10)Esther had not shewed her people nor her kindred: for Mordecai had charged her that she should not shew it. (11)And Mordecai walked every day before the court of the women's house, to know how Esther did, and what should become of her.
(12)Now when every maid's turn was come to go in to king Ahasuerus, after that she had been twelve months, according to the manner of the women, (for so were the days of their purifications accomplished, to wit, six months with oil of myrrh, and six months with sweet odours, and with other things for the purifying of the women;) (13)Then thus came every maiden unto the king; whatsoever she desired was given her to go with her out of the house of the women unto the king's house. (14)In the evening she went, and on the morrow she returned into the second house of the women, to the custody of Shaashgaz, the king's chamberlain, which kept the concubines: she came in unto the king no more, except the king delighted in her, and that she were called by name.
(15)Now when the turn of Esther, the daughter of Abihail the uncle of Mordecai, who had taken her for his daughter, was come to go in unto the king, she required nothing but what Hegai the king's chamberlain, the keeper of the women, appointed. And Esther obtained favour in the sight of all them that looked upon her.
(16)So Esther was taken unto king Ahasuerus into his house royal in the tenth month, which is the month Tebeth, in the seventh year of his reign. (17)And the king loved Esther above all the women, and she obtained grace and favour in his sight more than all the virgins; so that he set the royal crown upon her head, and made her queen instead of Vashti. (18)Then the king made a great feast unto all his princes and his servants, even Esther's feast; and he made a release to the provinces, and gave gifts, according to the state of the king.
(19)And when the virgins were gathered together the second time, then Mordecai sat in the king's gate. (20)Esther had not yet shewed her kindred nor her people; as Mordecai had charged her: for Esther did the commandment of Mordecai, like as when she was brought up with him...
Daniel 5:1-9; 17-31
• Belshazzar, son of king Nebuchadnezzar: the last recorded person in Scripture to have multiple wives
...(1)Belshazzar the king made a great feast to a thousand of his lords, and drank wine before the thousand.
(2)Belshazzar, whiles he tasted the wine, commanded to bring the golden and silver vessels which his father Nebuchadnezzar had taken out of the temple which was in Jerusalem; that the king, and his princes, his wives, and his concubines, might drink therein. (3)Then they brought the golden vessels that were taken out of the temple of the house of God which was at Jerusalem; and the king, and his princes, his wives, and his concubines, drank in them. (4)They drank wine, and praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone.
(5)In the same hour came forth fingers of a man's hand, and wrote over against the candlestick upon the plaister of the wall of the king's palace: and the king saw the part of the hand that wrote. (6)Then the king's countenance was changed, and his thoughts troubled him, so that the joints of his loins were loosed, and his knees smote one against another. (7)The king cried aloud to bring in the astrologers, the Chaldeans, and the soothsayers. And the king spake, and said to the wise men of Babylon, Whosoever shall read this writing, and shew me the interpretation thereof, shall be clothed with scarlet, and have a chain of gold about his neck, and shall be the third ruler in the kingdom.
(8)Then came in all the king's wise men: but they could not read the writing, nor make known to the king the interpretation thereof. (9)Then was king Belshazzar greatly troubled, and his countenance was changed in him, and his lords were astonied...
...(17)Then Daniel answered and said before the king, Let thy gifts be to thyself, and give thy rewards to another; yet I will read the writing unto the king, and make known to him the interpretation. (18)O thou king, the most high God gave Nebuchadnezzar thy father a kingdom, and majesty, and glory, and honour: (19)And for the majesty that he gave him, all people, nations, and languages, trembled and feared before him: whom he would he slew; and whom he would he kept alive; and whom he would he set up; and whom he would he put down. (20)But when his heart was lifted up, and his mind hardened in pride, he was deposed from his kingly throne, and they took his glory from him: (21)And he was driven from the sons of men; and his heart was made like the beasts, and his dwelling was with the wild asses: they fed him with grass like oxen, and his body was wet with the dew of heaven; till he knew that the most high God ruled in the kingdom of men, and that he appointeth over it whomsoever he will.
(22)And thou his son, O Belshazzar, hast not humbled thine heart, though thou knewest all this; (23)But hast lifted up thyself against the Lord of heaven; and they have brought the vessels of his house before thee, and thou, and thy lords, thy wives, and thy concubines, have drunk wine in them; and thou hast praised the gods of silver, and gold, of brass, iron, wood, and stone, which see not, nor hear, nor know: and the God in whose hand thy breath is, and whose are all thy ways, hast thou not glorified: (24)Then was the part of the hand sent from him; and this writing was written.
(25)And this is the writing that was written, MENE, MENE, TEKEL, UPHARSIN. (26)This the interpretation of the thing: MENE; God hath numbered thy kingdom, and finished it. (27)TEKEL; Thou art weighed in the balances, and art found wanting. (28)PERES; Thy kingdom is divided, and given to the Medes and Persians.
(29)Then commanded Belshazzar, and they clothed Daniel with scarlet, and put a chain of gold about his neck, and made a proclamation concerning him, that he should be the third ruler in the kingdom.
(30)In that night was Belshazzar the king of the Chaldeans slain.
(31)And Darius the Median took the kingdom, being about threescore and two years old...
• Moral lesson: Jesus Christ's firm reminder that one cannot successfully serve two masters (which can also apply to multiple wives)
...No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon...
...No servant can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one, and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and mammon...
Flavius Josephus "Antiquities of the Jews" (93 A.D.) Book XX - Chapter 2
HOW HELENA THE QUEEN OF ADIABENE AND HER SON IZATES, EMBRACED THE JEWISH RELIGION; AND HOW HELENA SUPPLIED THE POOR WITH CORN, WHEN THERE WAS A GREAT FAMINE AT JERUSALEM.
1. ABOUT this time it was that Helena, queen of Adiabene, and her son Izates, changed their course of life, and embraced the Jewish customs, and this on the occasion following: Monobazus, the king of Adiabene, who had also the name of Bazeus, fell in love with his sister Helena, and took her to be his wife, and begat her with child. But as he was in bed with her one night, he laid his hand upon his wife's belly, and fell asleep, and seemed to hear a voice, which bid him take his hand off his wife's belly, and not hurt the infant that was therein, which, by God's providence, would be safely born, and have a happy end. This voice put him into disorder; so he awaked immediately, and told the story to his wife; and when his son was born, he called him Izates. He had indeed Monobazus, his elder brother, by Helena also, as he had other sons by other wives besides. Yet did he openly place all his affections on this his only begotten son Izates, which was the origin of that envy which his other brethren, by the same father, bore to him; while on this account they hated him more and more, and were all under great affliction that their father should prefer Izates before them. Now although their father was very sensible of these their passions, yet did he forgive them, as not indulging those passions out of an ill disposition, but out of a desire each of them had to be beloved by their father. However, he sent Izates, with many presents, to Abennerig, the king of Charax-Spasini, and that out of the great dread he was in about him, lest he should come to some misfortune by the hatred his brethren bore him; and he committed his son's preservation to him. Upon which Abennerig gladly received the young man, and had a great affection for him, and married him to his own daughter, whose name was Samacha: he also bestowed a country upon him, from which he received large revenues.
2. But when Monobazus was grown old, and saw that he had but a little time to live, he had a mind to come to the sight of his son before he died. So he sent for him, and embraced him after the most affectionate manner, and bestowed on him the country called Carra; it was a soil that bare amomum in great plenty: there are also in it the remains of that ark, wherein it is related that Noah escaped the deluge, and where they are still shown to such as are desirous to see them. Accordingly, Izates abode in that country until his father's death. But the very day that Monobazus died, queen Helena sent for all the grandees, and governors of the kingdom, and for those that had the armies committed to their command; and when they were come, she made the following speech to them: "I believe you are not unacquainted that my husband was desirous Izates should succeed him in the government, and thought him worthy so to do. However, I wait your determination; for happy is he who receives a kingdom, not from a single person only, but from the willing suffrages of a great many." This she said, in order to try those that were invited, and to discover their sentiments. Upon the hearing of which, they first of all paid their homage to the queen, as their custom was, and then they said that they confirmed the king's determination, and would submit to it; and they rejoiced that Izates's father had preferred him before the rest of his brethren, as being agreeable to all their wishes: but that they were desirous first of all to slay his brethren and kinsmen, that so the government might come securely to Izates; because if they were once destroyed, all that fear would be over which might arise from their hatred and envy to him. Helena replied to this, that she returned them her thanks for their kindness to herself and to Izates; but desired that they would however defer the execution of this slaughter of Izates's brethren till he should be there himself, and give his approbation to it. So since these men had not prevailed with her, when they advised her to slay them, they exhorted her at least to keep them in bonds till he should come, and that for their own security; they also gave her counsel to set up some one whom she could put the greatest trust in, as a governor of the kingdom in the mean time. So queen Helena complied with this counsel of theirs, and set up Monobazus, the eldest son, to be king, and put the diadem upon his head, and gave him his father's ring, with its signet; as also the ornament which they call Sampser, and exhorted him to administer the affairs of the kingdom till his brother should come; who came suddenly upon hearing that his father was dead, and succeeded his brother Monobazus, who resigned up the government to him.