Image credit (lower-left): National Geographic "Living Descendants of Biblical Canaanites Identified Via DNA"
Image credit (center): L.A. Marzulli "Giant of Kandahar Afghanistan"
Image Credit (upper-right): Graham Hancock "The San Diego Giant"
Image Credit (bottom-right): American Association for Alternative Archaeology
Evidence for the Giants.
Current Cataloging includes:
• 12 Scripture Chapter Citations
• 1 Early Church Writing
• 1 Video Testimony
• 20 Historical Writings & 17 Newspaper Reports
...(1)And it came to pass, when men began to multiply on the face of the earth, and daughters were born unto them, (2)That the sons of God saw the daughters of men that they were fair; and they took them wives of all which they chose. (3)And the LORD said, My spirit shall not always strive with man, for that he is also flesh: yet his days shall be an hundred and twenty years.
(4)There were giants in the earth in those days; and also after that, when the sons of God came in unto the daughters of men, and they bare children to them, the same became mighty men which were of old, men of renown.
(5)And GOD saw that the wickedness of man was great in the earth, and that every imagination of the thoughts of his heart was only evil continually. (6)And it repented the LORD that he had made man on the earth, and it grieved him at his heart. (7)And the LORD said, I will destroy man whom I have created from the face of the earth; both man, and beast, and the creeping thing, and the fowls of the air; for it repenteth me that I have made them.
(8)But Noah found grace in the eyes of the LORD...
Numbers 13:1-2; 17-33
...(1)And the LORD spake unto Moses, saying, (2)Send thou men, that they may search the land of Canaan, which I give unto the children of Israel: of every tribe of their fathers shall ye send a man, every one a ruler among them...
...(17)And Moses sent them to spy out the land of Canaan, and said unto them, Get you up this way southward, and go up into the mountain: (18)And see the land, what it is; and the people that dwelleth therein, whether they be strong or weak, few or many; (19)And what the land is that they dwell in, whether it be good or bad; and what cities they be that they dwell in, whether in tents, or in strong holds; (20)And what the land is, whether it be fat or lean, whether there be wood therein, or not. And be ye of good courage, and bring of the fruit of the land. Now the time was the time of the firstripe grapes.
(21)So they went up, and searched the land from the wilderness of Zin unto Rehob, as men come to Hamath. (22)And they ascended by the south, and came unto Hebron; where Ahiman, Sheshai, and Talmai, the children of Anak were. (Now Hebron was built seven years before Zoan in Egypt.) (23)And they came unto the brook of Eshcol, and cut down from thence a branch with one cluster of grapes, and they bare it between two upon a staff; and they brought of the pomegranates, and of the figs. (24)The place was called the brook Eshcol, because of the cluster of grapes which the children of Israel cut down from thence.
(25)And they returned from searching of the land after forty days.
(26)And they went and came to Moses, and to Aaron, and to all the congregation of the children of Israel, unto the wilderness of Paran, to Kadesh; and brought back word unto them, and unto all the congregation, and shewed them the fruit of the land.
(27)And they told him, and said, We came unto the land whither thou sentest us, and surely it floweth with milk and honey; and this is the fruit of it. (28)Nevertheless the people be strong that dwell in the land, and the cities are walled, and very great: and moreover we saw the children of Anak there. (29)The Amalekites dwell in the land of the south: and the Hittites, and the Jebusites, and the Amorites, dwell in the mountains: and the Canaanites dwell by the sea, and by the coast of Jordan.
(30)And Caleb stilled the people before Moses, and said, Let us go up at once, and possess it; for we are well able to overcome it.
(31)But the men that went up with him said, We be not able to go up against the people; for they are stronger than we. (32)And they brought up an evil report of the land which they had searched unto the children of Israel, saying, The land, through which we have gone to search it, is a land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof; and all the people that we saw in it are men of a great stature.
(33)And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which come of the giants: and we were in our own sight as grasshoppers, and so we were in their sight...
...(19)And when we departed from Horeb, we went through all that great and terrible wilderness, which ye saw by the way of the mountain of the Amorites, as the LORD our God commanded us; and we came to Kadeshbarnea.
(20)And I said unto you, Ye are come unto the mountain of the Amorites, which the LORD our God doth give unto us. (21)Behold, the LORD thy God hath set the land before thee: go up and possess it, as the LORD God of thy fathers hath said unto thee; fear not, neither be discouraged. (22)And ye came near unto me every one of you, and said, We will send men before us, and they shall search us out the land, and bring us word again by what way we must go up, and into what cities we shall come. (23)And the saying pleased me well: and I took twelve men of you, one of a tribe: (24)And they turned and went up into the mountain, and came unto the valley of Eshcol, and searched it out. (25)And they took of the fruit of the land in their hands, and brought it down unto us, and brought us word again, and said, it is a good land which the LORD our God doth give us.
(26)Notwithstanding ye would not go up, but rebelled against the commandment of the LORD your God:
(27)And ye murmured in your tents, and said, Because the LORD hated us, he hath brought us forth out of the land of Egypt, to deliver us into the hand of the Amorites, to destroy us. (28)Whither shall we go up? our brethren have discouraged our heart, saying, The people is greater and taller than we; the cities are great and walled up to heaven; and moreover we have seen the sons of the Anakims there.
(29)Then I said unto you, Dread not, neither be afraid of them. (30)The LORD your God which goeth before you, he shall fight for you, according to all that he did for you in Egypt before your eyes; (31)And in the wilderness, where thou hast seen how that the LORD thy God bare thee, as a man doth bear his son, in all the way that ye went, until ye came into this place.
(32)Yet in this thing ye did not believe the LORD your God, (33)Who went in the way before you, to search you out a place to pitch your tents in, in fire by night, to shew you by what way ye should go, and in a cloud by day...
...(8)And when we passed by from our brethren the children of Esau, which dwelt in Seir, through the way of the plain from Elath, and from Eziongaber, we turned and passed by the way of the wilderness of Moab. (9)And the LORD said unto me, Distress not the Moabites, neither contend with them in battle: for I will not give thee of their land for a possession; because I have given Ar unto the children of Lot for a possession.
(10)The Emims dwelt therein in times past, a people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims; (11)Which also were accounted giants, as the Anakims; but the Moabites call them Emims. (12)The Horims also dwelt in Seir beforetime; but the children of Esau succeeded them, when they had destroyed them from before them, and dwelt in their stead; as Israel did unto the land of his possession, which the LORD gave unto them.
(13)Now rise up, and get you over the brook Zered. And we went over the brook Zered. (14)And the space in which we came from Kadeshbarnea, until we were come over the brook Zered, was thirty and eight years; until all the generation of the men of war were wasted out from among the host, as the LORD sware unto them. (15)For indeed the hand of the LORD was against them, to destroy them from among the host, until they were consumed.
(16)So it came to pass, when all the men of war were consumed and dead from among the people, (17)That the LORD spake unto me, saying, (18)Thou art to pass over through Ar, the coast of Moab, this day: (19)And when thou comest nigh over against the children of Ammon, distress them not, nor meddle with them: for I will not give thee of the land of the children of Ammon any possession; because I have given it unto the children of Lot for a possession.
(20)(That also was accounted a land of giants: giants dwelt therein in old time; and the Ammonites call them Zamzummims; (21)A people great, and many, and tall, as the Anakims; but the LORD destroyed them before them; and they succeeded them, and dwelt in their stead. (22)As he did to the children of Esau, which dwelt in Seir, when he destroyed the Horims from before them; and they succeeded them, and dwelt in their stead even unto this day: (23)And the Avims which dwelt in Hazerim, even unto Azzah, the Caphtorims, which came forth out of Caphtor, destroyed them, and dwelt in their stead.).
(24)Rise ye up, take your journey, and pass over the river Arnon: behold, I have given into thine hand Sihon the Amorite, king of Heshbon, and his land: begin to possess it, and contend with him in battle. (25)This day will I begin to put the dread of thee and the fear of thee upon the nations that are under the whole heaven, who shall hear report of thee, and shall tremble, and be in anguish because of thee...
...(1)Then we turned, and went up the way to Bashan: and Og the king of Bashan came out against us, he and all his people, to battle at Edrei. (2)And the LORD said unto me, Fear him not: for I will deliver him, and all his people, and his land, into thy hand; and thou shalt do unto him as thou didst unto Sihon king of the Amorites, which dwelt at Heshbon.
(3)So the LORD our God delivered into our hands Og also, the king of Bashan, and all his people: and we smote him until none was left to him remaining. (4)And we took all his cities at that time, there was not a city which we took not from them, threescore cities, all the region of Argob, the kingdom of Og in Bashan. (5)All these cities were fenced with high walls, gates, and bars; beside unwalled towns a great many. (6)And we utterly destroyed them, as we did unto Sihon king of Heshbon, utterly destroying the men, women, and children, of every city. (7)But all the cattle, and the spoil of the cities, we took for a prey to ourselves.
(8)And we took at that time out of the hand of the two kings of the Amorites the land that was on this side Jordan, from the river of Arnon unto mount Hermon; (9)(Which Hermon the Sidonians call Sirion; and the Amorites call it Shenir;) (10)All the cities of the plain, and all Gilead, and all Bashan, unto Salchah and Edrei, cities of the kingdom of Og in Bashan.
(11)For only Og king of Bashan remained of the remnant of giants; behold, his bedstead was a bedstead of iron; is it not in Rabbath of the children of Ammon? nine cubits was the length thereof, and four cubits the breadth of it, after the cubit of a man.
(12)And this land, which we possessed at that time, from Aroer, which is by the river Arnon, and half mount Gilead, and the cities thereof, gave I unto the Reubenites and to the Gadites. (13)And the rest of Gilead, and all Bashan, being the kingdom of Og, gave I unto the half tribe of Manasseh; all the region of Argob, with all Bashan, which was called the land of giants...
...(1)Now these are the kings of the land, which the children of Israel smote, and possessed their land on the other side Jordan toward the rising of the sun, from the river Arnon unto mount Hermon, and all the plain on the east:
(2)Sihon king of the Amorites, who dwelt in Heshbon, and ruled from Aroer, which is upon the bank of the river Arnon, and from the middle of the river, and from half Gilead, even unto the river Jabbok, which is the border of the children of Ammon; (3)And from the plain to the sea of Chinneroth on the east, and unto the sea of the plain, even the salt sea on the east, the way to Bethjeshimoth; and from the south, under Ashdothpisgah: (4)And the coast of Og king of Bashan, which was of the remnant of the giants, that dwelt at Ashtaroth and at Edrei. (5)And reigned in mount Hermon, and in Salcah, and in all Bashan, unto the border of the Geshurites and the Maachathites, and half Gilead, the border of Sihon king of Heshbon.
(6)Them did Moses the servant of the LORD and the children of Israel smite: and Moses the servant of the LORD gave it for a possession unto the Reubenites, and the Gadites, and the half tribe of Manasseh...
...(1)Now Joshua was old and stricken in years; and the LORD said unto him, Thou art old and stricken in years, and there remaineth yet very much land to be possessed.
(2)This is the land that yet remaineth: all the borders of the Philistines, and all Geshuri, (3)From Sihor, which is before Egypt, even unto the borders of Ekron northward, which is counted to the Canaanite: five lords of the Philistines; the Gazathites, and the Ashdothites, the Eshkalonites, the Gittites, and the Ekronites; also the Avites: (4)From the south, all the land of the Canaanites, and Mearah that is beside the Sidonians, unto Aphek, to the borders of the Amorites: (5)And the land of the Giblites, and all Lebanon, toward the sunrising, from Baalgad under mount Hermon unto the entering into Hamath. (6)All the inhabitants of the hill country from Lebanon unto Misrephothmaim, and all the Sidonians, them will I drive out from before the children of Israel: only divide thou it by lot unto the Israelites for an inheritance, as I have commanded thee.
(7)Now therefore divide this land for an inheritance unto the nine tribes, and the half tribe of Manasseh, (8)With whom the Reubenites and the Gadites have received their inheritance, which Moses gave them, beyond Jordan eastward, even as Moses the servant of the LORD gave them; (9)From Aroer, that is upon the bank of the river Arnon, and the city that is in the midst of the river, and all the plain of Medeba unto Dibon; (10)And all the cities of Sihon king of the Amorites, which reigned in Heshbon, unto the border of the children of Ammon; (11)And Gilead, and the border of the Geshurites and Maachathites, and all mount Hermon, and all Bashan unto Salcah; (12)All the kingdom of Og in Bashan, which reigned in Ashtaroth and in Edrei, who remained of the remnant of the giants: for these did Moses smite, and cast them out. (13)Nevertheless the children of Israel expelled not the Geshurites, nor the Maachathites: but the Geshurites and the Maachathites dwell among the Israelites until this day. (14)Only unto the tribe of Levi he gave none inheritance; the sacrifices of the LORD God of Israel made by fire are their inheritance, as he said unto them...
I Samuel 17:1-11
...(1)Now the Philistines gathered together their armies to battle, and were gathered together at Shochoh, which belongeth to Judah, and pitched between Shochoh and Azekah, in Ephesdammim. (2)And Saul and the men of Israel were gathered together, and pitched by the valley of Elah, and set the battle in array against the Philistines. (3)And the Philistines stood on a mountain on the one side, and Israel stood on a mountain on the other side: and there was a valley between them.
(4)And there went out a champion out of the camp of the Philistines, named Goliath, of Gath, whose height was six cubits and a span. (5)And he had an helmet of brass upon his head, and he was armed with a coat of mail; and the weight of the coat was five thousand shekels of brass. (6)And he had greaves of brass upon his legs, and a target of brass between his shoulders. (7)And the staff of his spear was like a weaver's beam; and his spear's head weighed six hundred shekels of iron: and one bearing a shield went before him.
(8)And he stood and cried unto the armies of Israel, and said unto them, Why are ye come out to set your battle in array? am not I a Philistine, and ye servants to Saul? choose you a man for you, and let him come down to me. (9)If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your servants: but if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall ye be our servants, and serve us.
(10)And the Philistine said, I defy the armies of Israel this day; give me a man, that we may fight together.
(11)When Saul and all Israel heard those words of the Philistine, they were dismayed, and greatly afraid...
II Samuel 21:15-22
...(15)Moreover the Philistines had yet war again with Israel; and David went down, and his servants with him, and fought against the Philistines: and David waxed faint. (16)And Ishbibenob, which was of the sons of the giant, the weight of whose spear weighed three hundred shekels of brass in weight, he being girded with a new sword, thought to have slain David. (17)But Abishai the son of Zeruiah succoured him, and smote the Philistine, and killed him. Then the men of David sware unto him, saying, Thou shalt go no more out with us to battle, that thou quench not the light of Israel.
(18)And it came to pass after this, that there was again a battle with the Philistines at Gob: then Sibbechai the Hushathite slew Saph, which of the sons of the giant.
(19)And there was again a battle in Gob with the Philistines, where Elhanan the son of Jaareoregim, a Bethlehemite, slew Goliath the Gittite, the staff of whose spear was like a weaver's beam.
(20)And there was yet a battle in Gath, where was a man of stature, that had on every hand six fingers, and on every foot six toes, four and twenty in number; and he also was born to the giant. (21)And when he defied Israel, Jonathan the son of Shimea the brother of David slew him.
(22)These four were born to the giant in Gath, and fell by the hand of David, and by the hand of his servants...
I Chronicles 20:2-8
...(2)And David took the crown of their king from off his head, and found it to weigh a talent of gold, and there were precious stones in it; and it was set upon David's head: and he brought also exceeding much spoil out of the city. (3)And he brought out the people that were in it, and cut them with saws, and with harrows of iron, and with axes. Even so dealt David with all the cities of the children of Ammon. And David and all the people returned to Jerusalem.
(4)And it came to pass after this, that there arose war at Gezer with the Philistines; at which time Sibbechai the Hushathite slew Sippai, that was of the children of the giant: and they were subdued.
(5)And there was war again with the Philistines; and Elhanan the son of Jair slew Lahmi the brother of Goliath the Gittite, whose spear staff like was a weaver's beam.
(6)And yet again there was war at Gath, where was a man of stature, whose fingers and toes were four and twenty, six on each hand, and six on each foot: and he also was the son of the giant. (7)But when he defied Israel, Jonathan the son of Shimea David's brother slew him.
(8)These were born unto the giant in Gath; and they fell by the hand of David, and by the hand of his servants...
...(11)God hath delivered me to the ungodly, and turned me over into the hands of the wicked.
(12)I was at ease, but he hath broken me asunder: he hath also taken me by my neck, and shaken me to pieces, and set me up for his mark. (13)His archers compass me round about, he cleaveth my reins asunder, and doth not spare; he poureth out my gall upon the ground. (14)He breaketh me with breach upon breach, he runneth upon me like a giant.
(15)I have sewed sackcloth upon my skin, and defiled my horn in the dust. (16)My face is foul with weeping, and on my eyelids is the shadow of death; (17)Not for any injustice in mine hands: also my prayer is pure...
...(6)Thus saith the LORD; For three transgressions of Israel, and for four, I will not turn away the punishment thereof; because they sold the righteous for silver, and the poor for a pair of shoes; (7)That pant after the dust of the earth on the head of the poor, and turn aside the way of the meek: and a man and his father will go in unto the same maid, to profane my holy name: (8)And they lay themselves down upon clothes laid to pledge by every altar, and they drink the wine of the condemned in the house of their god.
(9)Yet destroyed I the Amorite before them, whose height was like the height of the cedars, and he was strong as the oaks; yet I destroyed his fruit from above, and his roots from beneath. (10)Also I brought you up from the land of Egypt, and led you forty years through the wilderness, to possess the land of the Amorite. (11)And I raised up of your sons for prophets, and of your young men for Nazarites. Is it not even thus, O ye children of Israel? saith the LORD.
(12)But ye gave the Nazarites wine to drink; and commanded the prophets, saying, Prophesy not...
Theophilus “Theophilus to Autolycus” (180-185 A.D.) Book II: Chapter 31: The History After the Flood
After the flood was there again a beginning of cities and kings, in the following manner:--The first city was Babylon, and Erech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of Shinar. And their king was called Nebroth [Nimrod]. From these came Asshur, from whom also the Assyrians receive their name. And Nimrod built the cities Nineveh and Rehoboth, and Calah, and Resen, between Nineveh and Calah; and Nineveh became a very great city. And another son of Shem, the son of Noah, by name Mizraim, begat Ludim, and those called Anamim, and Lehabim, and Naphtuhim, and Pathrusim, and Casluhim, out of whom came Philistin. Of the three sons of Noah, however, and of their death and genealogy, we have given a compendious register in the above-mentioned book. But now we will mention the remaining facts both concerning cities and kings, and the things that happened when there was one speech and one language. Before the dividing of the languages these fore-mentioned cities existed. But when men were about to be dispersed, they took counsel of their own judgment. and not at the instigation of God, to build a city, a tower whose top might reach into heaven, that they might make a glorious name to themselves. Since, therefore, they had dared, contrary to the will of God, to attempt a grand work, God destroyed their city, and overthrew their tower. From that time He confounded the languages of men, giving to each a different dialect. And similarly did the Sibyl speak, when she declared that wrath would come on the world. She says:- "When are fulfilled the threats of the great God, With which He threatened men, when formerly In the Assyrian land they built a tower, And all were of one speech, and wished to rise Even till they climbed unto the starry heaven, Then the Immortal raised a mighty wind And laid upon them strong necessity; For when the wind threw down the mighty tower, Then rose among mankind fierce strife and hate.
One speech was changed to many dialects, And earth was filled with divers tribes and kings."
And so on. These things, then, happened in the land of the Chaldaeans. And in the land of Canaan there was a city, by name Haran. And in these days, Pharaoh, who by the Egyptians was also called Nechaoth, was first king of Egypt, and thus the kings followed in succession. And in the land of Shinar, among those called Chal daeans, the first king was Arioch, and next after him Ellasar, and after him Chedorlaomer, king of Elam, and after him Tidal, king of the nations called Assyrians. And there were five other cities in the territory of Ham, the son of Noah; the first called Sodom, then Gomorrah, Admah, Zeboiim, and Balah, which was also called Zoar. And the names of their kings are these: Bera, king of Sodom; Birsha, king of Gomorrah; Shinab, king of Admah; Shemeber, king of Zeboiim; Bela, king of Zoar, which is also called Kephalac. These served Chedorlaomer, the king of the Assyrians, for twelve years, and in the thirteenth year they revolted from Chedorlaomer; and thus it came to pass at that time that the four Assyrian kings waged war upon the five kings. This was the first commencement of making war on the earth; and they destroyed the giants Karnaim, and the strong nations that were with them in their city, and the Horites of the mountains called Seir, as far as the plain of Paran, which is by the wilderness. And at that time there was a righteous king called Melchisedek, in the city of Salem, which now is Jerusalem. This was the first priest of all priests of the Most High God; and from him the above-named city Hierosolyma was called Jerusalem. And from his time priests were found in all the earth. And after him reigned Abimelech in Gerar; and after him another Abimelech. Then reigned Ephron, surnamed the Hittite. Such are the names of the kings that were in former times. And the rest of the kings of the Assyrians, during an interval of many years, have been passed over in silence unrecorded, all writers narrating the events of our recent days. There were these kings of Assyria: Tiglath-Pileser, and after him Shalmaneser, then Sennacherib; and Adrammelech the Ethiopian, who also reigned over Egypt, was his triarch;--though these things, in comparison with our books, are quite recent.
The red-haired giant, armed with a lance, rushed out and caught the unit by surprise -- momentarily bewildering them by his sheer speed and agility. A brief firefight ensued, as the unit felled the giant with continuous gunfire aimed at his face.
After the giant's demise, the eyewitnesses all testify that they were ordered, by higher-ups, to keep silent on the issue.
Flavius Josephus "Antiquities of the Jews " (93 A.D.) Book 1: From the Creation to the Death of Isaac (3,833 years); Chapter 9
AT this time, when the Assyrians had the dominion over Asia, the people of Sodom were in a flourishing condition, both as to riches and the number of their youth. There were five kings that managed the affairs of this county: Ballas, Barsas, Senabar, and Sumobor, with the king of Bela; and each king led on his own troops: and the Assyrians made war upon them; and, dividing their army into four parts, fought against them. Now every part of the army had its own commander; and when the battle was joined, the Assyrians were conquerors, and imposed a tribute on the kings of the Sodomites, who submitted to this slavery twelve years; and so long they continued to pay their tribute: but on the thirteenth year they rebelled, and then the army of the Assyrians came upon them, under their commanders Amraphel, Arioch, Chodorlaomer, and Tidal. These kings had laid waste all Syria, and overthrown the offspring of the giants. And when they were come over against Sodom, they pitched their camp at the vale called the Slime Pits, for at that time there were pits in that place; but now, upon the destruction of the city of Sodom, that vale became the Lake Asphaltites, as it is called. However, concerning this lake we shall speak more presently. Now when the Sodomites joined battle with the Assyrians, and the fight was very obstinate, many of them were killed, and the rest were carried captive; among which captives was Lot, who had come to assist the Sodomites.
Flavius Josephus "Antiquities of the Jews" (93 A.D.) Book 5: From the Death of Moses to the Death of Eli (476 years); Chapter 2
2. But the affairs of the Canaanites were at this thee in a flourishing condition, and they expected the Israelites with a great army at the city Bezek, having put the government into the hands of Adonibezek, which name denotes the Lord of Bezek, for Adoni in the Hebrew tongue signifies Lord. Now they hoped to have been too hard for the Israelites, because Joshua was dead; but when the Israelites had joined battle with them, I mean the two tribes before mentioned, they fought gloriously, and slew above ten thousand of them, and put the rest to flight; and in the pursuit they took Adonibezek, who, when his fingers and toes were cut off by them, said, "Nay, indeed, I was not always to lie concealed from God, as I find by what I now endure, while I have not been ashamed to do the same to seventy-two kings." So they carried him alive as far as Jerusalem; and when he was dead, they buried him in the earth, and went on still in taking the cities: and when they had taken the greatest part of them, they besieged Jerusalem; and when they had taken the lower city, which was not under a considerable time, they slew all the inhabitants; but the upper city was not to be taken without great difficulty, through the strength of its walls, and the nature of the place.
3. For which reason they removed their camp to Hebron; and when they had taken it, they slew all the inhabitants. There were till then left the race of giants, who had bodies so large, and countenances so entirely different from other men, that they were surprising to the sight, and terrible to the hearing. The bones of these men are still shown to this very day, unlike to any credible relations of other men. Now they gave this city to the Levites as an extraordinary reward, with the suburbs of two thousand cities; but the land thereto belonging they gave as a free gift to Caleb, according to the injunctions of Moses. This Caleb was one of the spies which Moses sent into the land of Canaan. They also gave land for habitation to the posterity of Jethro, the Midianite, who was the father-in-law to Moses; for they had left their own country, and followed them, and accompanied them in the wilderness.
Pigafetta, Antonio (1969). Magellan's Voyage: A Narrative Account of the First Circumnavigation (p.45-46). Yale University
[c. 1519 A.D.]
We tarried thirteen days in this land of Verzin, and departing thence and pursuing our way we went to thirty-four and one third degrees toward the Antarctic Pole. There we found beside a river men of the kind called Canibali, who eat human flesh. And one of these men, as tall as a giant, came to our captain's ship to satisfy himself and request that the others might come. And this man had a voice like a bull's. And while he was on board the ship, his companions carried off all their goods which they had to a more distant castle, for fear of us. Seeing this, we landed one hundred men from the ships and went after them to try to take some. But they made their escape, for these people made more ground in one pace than we could in a leap.
In the said river were seven small islands, in the largest of which precious stones are found. Which place was formerly named Cape St Mary, and it was thought that one passed thence to the sea of Sur, and nothing more was ever discovered.
It is not known that any ships have passed beyond the said cape. And now it is no longer a cape, but a river, seventeen leagues in width at its mouth, where it enters the sea.
In time past these tall men called Canibali, in this river, ate a Spanish captain named Juan de Solis and sixty men who had gone, as we did, to discover land, trusting too much in them...
...Departing thence to forty-nine and a half degrees toward the Antarctic Pole, because it was winter, we entered a port to pass the winter, where we remained two whole months without ever seeing anyone. But one day (without anyone expecting it) we saw a giant who was on the shore, quite naked, and who danced, leaped, and sang, and while he sang he threw sand and dust on his head. Our captain sent one of his men toward him, charging him to leap and sing like the other in order to reassure him and show him friendship. Which he did.
Immediately the man of the ship, dancing, led this giant to a small island where the captain awaited him. And when he was before us, he began to marvel and to be afraid, and he raised one finger upward, believing that we came from heaven. And he was so tall that the tallest of us only came up to his waist...
de Vaca, Nunez Cabeza (1922). American Explorers: The Journey of Nunez Cabeza de Vaca (p.31-32).
[c. 1528 A.D.]
...After we had got out, they pressed us very hard, intending to cut us off, and it was useless to turn upon them, for they would hide in the lake and from there wound both men and horses.
So the Governor ordered the horsemen to dismount and attack them on foot. The pursuer dismounted also, and our people attacked them. Again they fled to a lagune, and we succeeded in holding the trail. In this fight some of our people were wounded, in spite of their good armor. There were men that day who swore they had seen two oak trees, each as thick as the calf of a leg, shot through and through by arrows, which is not surprising if we consider the force and dexterity with which they shoot. I myself saw an arrow that had penetrated the base of a poplar tree for half a foot in length. All the many Indians from Florida we saw were archers, and, being very tall and naked, at a distance they appear giants.
Those people are wonderfully built, very gaunt and of great strength and agility. Their bows are as thick as an arm, from eleven to twelve spans long, shooting an arrow at 200 paces with unerring aim. From that crossing we went to another similar one, a league away, but while it was half a league in length it was also much more difficult. There we crossed without opposition, for the Indians, having spent all their arrows at the first place, had nothing where-with they would dare attack us. The next day, while crossing a similar place, I saw the tracks of people who went ahead of us, and I notified the Governor, who was in the rear, so that, although the Indians turned upon us, as we were on our guard, they could do us no harm. Once on open ground they pursued us still. We attacked them twice, killing two, while they wounded me and two or three other Christians, and entered the forest again, where we could no longer injure them.
In this manner we marched for eight days, without meeting any more natives, until one league from the site to which I said we were going...
Castaneda, Pedro de (1540-1542). The Journey of Coronado (p.24-25; 26-28)
..The army which had stayed with Don Tristan de Arellano started to follow their general, all loaded with provisions, with lances on their shoulders, and all on foot, so as to have the forces loaded. With no slight labor from day to day, they reached a province which Cabeza de Vaca had named Hearts (Corazones), because the people here offered him many hearts of animals. He founded a town here and named it San Hieronimo de los Corazones (Saint Jerome of the Hearts). After it had been started, it was seen that it could not be kept up here, and so it was afterward transferred to a valley which had been called Senora. The Spaniards call it Senora, and so it will be known by this name.
From here a force went down the river to the seacoast to find the harbor and to find out about the ships. Don Rodrigo Maldonado, who was captain of those who went in search of the ships, did not find them, but he brought back with him an Indian so large and tall that the best man in the army reached only to his chest. It was said that other Indians were even taller on that coast. After the rains ceased the army went on to where the town of Senora was afterward located, because there were provisions in that region, so that they were able to wait there for orders from the general...
...Don Tristan de Arellano stayed in this new town with the weakest men, and from this time on there was nothing but mutinies and strife, because after the army had gone Captain Melchior Diaz took 25 of the most efficient men, leaving in his place one Diego de Alcaraz, a man unfitted to have people under his command. He took guides and went toward the north and west in search of the seacoast. After going about 150 leagues, they came to a province of exceedingly tall and strong men -- like giants. They are naked and live in large straw cabins built underground like smoke houses, with only the straw roof above ground. They enter these at one end and come out at the other. More than a hundred persons, old and young, sleep in one cabin. When they carry anything, they can take a load of more than three or four hundredweight on their heads. Once when our men wished to fetch a log for the fire, and six men were unable to carry it, one of the Indians is reported to have come in and raised it in his arms, put it on his head alone, and carried it very easily. They eat bread cooked in the ashes, as big as the large two-pound loaves of Castile. On account of the great cold, they carry a firebrand (tison) in the hand when they go from one place to another, with which they warm the other hand and the body as well, and in this way, they keep shifting it ever now and then...
Captain John Smith's Journals: (July 24, 1608). Smith's Second Voyage
SMITH AND HIS MEN MEET THE SUSQUEHANNOCKS NEAR HAVRE DE GRACE
Hatchets from the Sasquesahanocks.
"Many hatchets, knives, peeces of iron, and brasse, we saw amongst them, which they reported to have from the Sasquesahanocks, a mightie people and mortall enemies with the Massawomeks. The Sasquesahanocks inhabit upon the chiefe Spring of these foure branches of the Bayes head, two dayes journey higher then our barge could passe for rocks, yet we prevailed with the Interpreter to take with him another Interpreter, to perswade the Sasquesahanocks to come visit us, for their language are different. Three or foure dayes we expected their returne, then sixtie of those gyant-like people came downe, with presents of Venison, Tobacco-pipes three foot in length, Baskets, Targets, Bowes and Arrowes."
[modern English translation]
"Many hatchets, knives, pieces of iron, and brass, we saw amongst them, which they reported to have from the Susquehannocks, a mighty people and mortal enemies with the Massaomeks. The Susquehannocks inhabit upon the chief Spring of these four branches of the Bayes head, two days journey higher than our barge could pass [due to the] rocks, yet we prevailed with the Interpreter to take with him another Interpreter, to persuade the Susquehannocks to come visit us, for their language are different. Three or four days we expected their return, then 60 of those giant-like people came down, with presents of venison, tobacco pipes three foot in length, baskets, targets, bows and arrows."
Jones, James Athearn (1830). Traditions of the North American Indians Vol. 2. London: Henry Colburn and Richard Bentley.
Expedition Of The Lenni Lenapes.
..."Our tribe," said the chief, "are called Mengwe. We too have come from a distant country, and we also are bound to the land of the rising sun. We will smoke in the Lenape's pipe, and bury the war-club very deep; we will assist to make the Lenapes very strong, and will never suffer the grass to grow in our war-path when the Lenapes are assailed by enemies. We will draw out the thorns from your feet, oil your stiffened limbs, and wipe your bodies with soft down. We will lift each other up from this place, and the burthen shall be set down at each other's dwelling-place. And the peace we make shall last as long as the sun shall shine, or the rivers flow. And this is all I have to say."
So a league was made, though no war had been, and the two nations freely intermingled. Each man unclosed his hand to his neighbour, the Lenape warrior took the Mengwe maiden to his tent, and her brother had a woman of the former nation to roast his buffalo-hump, and boil his corn.
And now the spies, who had been sent forward for the purpose of reconnoitring, returned. They had seen many things so strange, that when they reported them, our people half-believed them to be dreams, and for a while regarded them but as the songs of birds. They told, that they had found the further bank of the River of Fish inhabited by a very powerful people, who dwelt in great villages, surrounded by high walls. They were very tall—so tall that the head of the tallest Lenape could not reach their arms, and their women were of higher stature and heavier limbs than the loftiest and largest man in the confederate nations. They were called the Allegewi, and were men delighting in red and black paint, and the shrill war-whoop, and the strife of the spear. Such was the relation made by the spies to their countrymen.
This report of the spies increased the fears and dissatisfaction of the Lenapes to such a height, that part agreed to remain in the lands in which they then were, and not to attempt to cross the river occupied by so many hostile warriors. But the greater part declared that they were men, and rather than turn back from a foe, however strong, or leave a battle-field without a blow or a war-whoop, they would march to certain death, and leave their bones in a hostile camp. So one band, the strongest of the Lenapes, remained beyond the Mississippi, while the others prepared to encounter the nations who were the present lords of the soil. But, ere they committed their fortunes to battle, they fasted, and mortified their flesh, to gain the favour of the being who presides over war, and their priests were consulted to learn whether he would be propitious to them...
Schoolcraft, Henry (1846). Notes on the Iroquois (p.266-268).
TRADITIONS OF WARS WITH MONSTERS, GIANTS AND SUPERNATURAL PHENOMENA
...The withdrawal of the Konearaunehneh, was followed by the appearance of the great On-yar-he or lake serpent, which traversed the country, and by coiling himself in leading positions near the paths, interrupted the communication between the towns. He created terror wherever he went, and diffused a poisonous breath.
While this enemy yet remained in the land, and they were counselling about the best means of killing him, or driving him away, the country was invaded by a still more fearful enemy, namely, the Ot-ne-yar-heh, or Stonish Giants. They were a powerful tribe from the wilderness, tall, fierce, and hostile, and resistance to them was vain. They defeated and overwhelmed an army which was sent out against them, and put the whole country in fear. These giants were not only of prodigious strength, but they were cannibals, devouring men, women and children in their inroads.
It is said by the Shawnees, that they were descended from a certain family, which journeyed on the east side of the Mississippi, after the vine broke, and they went towards the northwest. Abandoned to wandering and the hardships of the forest, they forgot the rules of humanity, and began at first to eat raw flesh, and next men. They practised rolling themselves in the sand, and by this means their bodies were covered with hard skin, so that the arrows of the Iroquois only rattled against their rough bodies, and fell at their feet. And the consequence was, that they were obliged to hide in caves, and glens, and were brought into subjection by these fierce invaders for many winters, (or years). At length the Holder of the Heavens visited his people, and finding that they were in great distress, he determined to grant them relief, and rid them entirely of these barbarous invaders. To accomplish this, he changed himself into one of these giants, and brandishing his heavy club, led them on, under the pretence of finding the Akonoshioni. When they had got near to their strong hold at Onondaga, night coming on, he bid them lie down in a hollow, telling them that he would make the attack at the customary hour, at day break. But at day break, having ascended a height, he overwhelmed them with a vast mass of rocks, where their forms may yet be seen. Only one escaped to carry the news of their dreadful fate, and he fled towards the north.
The Evansville Journal: Dec. 25, 1845 (Evansville, Indiana)
Basler, Roy P. (1953). The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, Vol II (p.10-11), New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press
"A philosopher of a slightly different turn will say Niagara Falls is only the lip of the basin out of which pours all the surplus water which rains down on two or three hundred thousand square miles of the earth's surface. He will estim[ate with] approximate accuracy, that five hundred thousand [to]ns of water, falls with its full weight, a distance of a hundred feet each minute--thus exerting a force equal to the lifting of the same weight, through the same space, in the same time. And then the further reflection comes that this vast amount of water, constantly pouring down, is supplied by an equal amount constantly lifted up, by the sun; and still he says, 'If this much is lifted up, for this one space of two or three hundred thousand square miles, and equal amount must be lifted for every other equal space; and he is overwhelmed in the contemplation of the vast power the sun is constantly exerting in quiet, noiseless operation of lifting water up to be rained down again.
"But still there is more. It calls up the indefinite past. When Columbus first sought this continent--when Christ suffered on the cross--when Moses led Israel through the Red-Sea--nay, even, when Adam first came from the hand of his Maker--then as now, Niagara was roaring here. The eyes of that species of extinct giants, whose bones fill the mounds of America, have gazed on Niagara, as ours do now. Co[n]temporary with the whole race of men, and older than the first man, Niagara is strong, and fresh to-day as ten thousand years ago. The Mammoth and Mastadon--now so long dead, that fragments of their monstrous bones, alone testify, that they ever lived, have gazed on Niagara. In that long--long time, never still for a single moment. Never dried, never froze, never slept, never rested,"
Clark, Joshua Victor Hopkins (1849). Onondaga. Or, Reminiscences of Earlier And Later Times (p.83-84). Syracuse: Stoddard & Babcock.
...The first locality which received a name within the limits of the present city of Syracuse, was called Webster's Landing, from Ephraim Webster, who kept a few goods for the Indian trade, on the bank of the creek, a little south of its outlet. Mr. Webster was succeeded by Benjamin Newkirk, in 1793; at which time, there was quite a number of Indian cabins, ranging along the west bank of the creek, enough to form a respectable Indian village. The dark, gloomy and almost impenetrable swamp, now occupied by the city, was then a favorite resort for wolves, bears, wild-cats, mud-turtles, and swamp rattlesnakes. The western portion of the valley about Syracuse, was originally timbered with hemlock, birch and soft maple; the eastern portion with cedar and pine.
Near the west bank of the creek, was an extensive Indian burying-ground, where skeletons have frequently been disinterred, and are occasionally to this day -- two having been exhumed during the past year. At the time the west locks were constructed at Syracuse, in 1819, over one hundred were taken up. In excavating the canal for the red mill, on the east bank of the creek, several skeletons were found. In 1843, one of extraordinary size was disinterred; one of the lower bones of the leg being set beside the limb of a tall man, reached far above his knee. The skull was comparatively large, and the jaws were surrounded with a full set of double teeth, all around. They were perfectly sound, covered with a beautiful enamel of the most perfect whiteness. Such occurrences are not uncommon, at the several Indian burying grounds throughout the county. In one grave was found a large skeleton, on each side of which was a gun, with flints in the locks, having the appearance of being loaded at the time they were buried. In the grave was also a brass kettle, two pairs of sheers, three razors, a tomahawk, and a number of bullets. A large pine tree had recently been cut, which had grown over the grave...
Hough, Franklin B. (1854). A History of Jefferson County in the State of New York (p.12-13). Watertown, NY.
ABORIGINAL TRACES, FRENCH HISTORY.
...Near the north-west corner of Rodman, on lot number two, on the farm of Jared Freeman, was formerly an interesting work, of which no trace remains,* except a boulder of gneiss, worn smooth by grinding. Before the place had been cultivated, it is said to have shown an oval double bank, with an intervening crescent-shaped space, and a short bank running down a gentle slope to a small stream, one of the sources of Stony Creek, that flows near. Several hundred bushels of burnt corn were turned out, over an area one rod by eight, showing that this must have been an immense magazine of food. On the farm of Jacob Heath, on lot No. 25, near the west line of Rodman, and on the north bank of North Sandy Creek, a short distance above the confluence of the two main branches of that stream, there formerly existed an enclosure of the same class. It included about three acres, was overgrown with heavy timber, and furnished within and without, when plowed, a great quantity and variety of terra cotta, in fragments, but no metallic relics. Under the roots of a large maple was dug up the bones of a man of great stature, and furnished with entire rows of double teeth...
...One of the most conclusive evidences of ancient military occupation and conflict, occurs in Rutland, near the residence of Abner Tamblin, one mile from the western line of the town, and two miles from the river. It is on the summit of the Trenton limestone terrace, which forms a bold escarpment, extending down the river, and passing across the southern part of Watertown. There here occurs a slight embankment, and ditch irregularly oval, with several gateways; and along the ditch, in several places, have been found great numbers of skeletons, almost entirely of males, and lying in great confusion, as if they had been slain in defending it. Among these bones were those of a man of colossal size, and like nine-tenths of the others, furnished with a row of double teeth in each jaw. The singular peculiarity, with that of broad flat jaws, retreating forehead, and great prominence of the occiput, which was common to most of these skulls, may hereafter afford some clue to their history. There is said to have been found at this place by excavating, hearths, or fire places, with bones of animals, broken pottery, and implements of stone, at two different levels, separated by an accumulation of earth and vegetable mould from one to two feet thick, as if the place had been twice occupied. So great has been the length of time since these bones have been covered, that they fall to pieces very soon after being exposed to the air...
The New York Times: Nov. 21, 1856
Lee, Nelson (1859). Three Years Among the Comanches (p.194-196). Albany: Baker Taylor.
...The Rolling Thunder, in order to convince me of the correctness of a belief, universal throughout the Camanche nation, conducted me to the western side of this strange valley, where I saw, with infinite astonishment and surprise, the dilapidated ruins of a large town. In the midst of the falling walls of a great number of buildings, which, in some remote age, beyond doubt, had lined spacious streets, was, what appeared to have been, a church or cathedral. Its walls of cut stone, two feet thick, and in some places fifteen feet high, included a space, measuring two hundred feet in length, and, perhaps, one hundred in width. The inner surface of the walls in many places was adorned with elaborate carved work, evidently the labor of a master hand, and at the eastern end was a massive stone platform which seemed to have been used as a stage or pulpit. In my surprise, at beholding so unexpectedly these evidences of civilization in that wild region, I turned to The Rolling Thunder and asked if he could explain it.
This is the legend of the Camanches, as he related it: Innumerable moons ago, a race of white men, ten feet high, and far more rich and powerful than any white people now living, here inhabited a large range of country, extending from the rising to the setting sun. Their fortifications crowned the summits of the mountains, protecting their populous cities situated in the intervening valleys. They excelled every other nation which has flourished, either before or since, in all manner of cunning handicraft -- were brave and warlike -- ruling over the land they had wrested from its ancient possessors, with a high and haughty hand. Compared with them the pale faces of the present day, were as pigmies, both in art and arms. They drove the Indians from their homes, putting them to the sword, and occupying the valleys in which their fathers had dwelt before them since the world began. At length, in the height of their power and glory, when they remembered justice and mercy no more, and became proud and lifted up, the Great Spirit descended from above, sweeping them with fire and deluge from the face of the earth. The mounds we had seen of the table lands were the remnants of their fortresses, and the crumbling ruins that surrounded us, all that remained of a mighty city.
In like manner, continued The Rolling Thunder, the day will surely come when the present white race, which is driving the Indians before it, and despoiling them of their inheritance, and which, is the confidence of its strength, has become arrogant and boastful and forgotten God, will be swept from existence. For the Great Spirit is just -- and as certainly as the rivers flow downward towards the salt sea, or the sun rises in the morning and sets at night, so certainly will He yet restore the land of their father to the red man, when the days of his affliction are passed...
Porter, Rev. F. L. (1866). The Giant Cities of Bashan; and Syria's Holy Places (p.19-20) New-York: T. Nelson and Sons
Chapter 1: BASHAN AND ITS GIANT CITIES
...I have pitched my tent on the site of of ancient Tyre, and searched, but searched in vain, for a single trace of its ruins. Then, but not till then, did I realize the full force and truth of the prophetic denunciation upon it: "Thou shalt be sought for, yet shalt thou never be found again" (Ezek. xxvi. 21). The very ruins of Capernaum--that city which, in our Lord's day, was "exalted unto heaven"--have been so completely obliterated, that the question of its site never has been, and probably never will be, definitely settled. And these are not solitary cases: Jericho has disappeared; Bethel is "come to naught" (Amos v. 5); Samaria is "as an heap of the field, as plantings of a vineyard" (Micah i. 6). The state of Bashan is totally different: it is literally crowded with towns and large villages; and though the vast majority of them are deserted, they are not ruined. I have more than once entered a deserted city in the evening, taken possession of a comfortable house, and spent the night in peace. Many of the houses in the ancient cities of Bashan are perfect, as if only finished yesterday. The walls are sound, the roofs unbroken, the doors, and even the window-shutters in their places. Let not my readers think that I am transcribing a passage from the "Arabian Nights." I am relating sober facts; I am simply telling what I have seen, and what I purpose just now more fully to describe. "But how," you ask me, "can we account for the preservation of ordinary dwellings in a land of ruins? If one of our modern English cities were deserted for a millennium, there would scarcely be a fragment of a wall standing." The reply is easy enough. The houses of Bashan are not ordinary houses. Their walls are from five to eight feet thick, built of large squared blocks of basalt; the roofs are formed of slabs of the same material, hewn like planks, and reaching from wall to wall; the very doors and window-shutters are of stone, hung upon pivots projecting above and below. Some of these ancient cities have from two to five hundred houses still perfect, but not a man to dwell in them. On one occasion, from the battlements of the Castle of Saleah, I counted some thrity towns and villages, dotting the surface of the vast plain, many of them almost as perfect as when they were built, and yet for more than five centuries there has not been a single inhabitant in one of them. It may easily be imagined with what feelings I read on that day, and on that spot, the remarkable words of Moses: "The generation to come of your children that shall rise up after you, and the stranger that shall come from a far land, shall say when they see the plagues of this land, even all nations shall say, Wherefore hath the Lord done this unto this land? what meaneth the heat of this great anger?"
My readers are now prepared, I trust, to make a pleasant and profitable excursion to the giant cities of Bashan. I shall promise not to make too large a demand upon their time and patience, and yet to give them a tolerably clear and full view of one of the most interesting countries in the world...
Sauk Rapids Sentinel: Dec. 18, 1868
The New York Times: Dec. 25, 1868
Summary: City quarrymen allegedly found the petrified remains of a giant human skeleton embedded within solid granite rock (with the remains, itself, further embedded within sand). The length of the skeleton was measured to be 10 feet 9 1/2 inches; with the skull measuring 31 1/2 inches in circumference, the femur 26 1/4 inches, etc. Estimated weight, when alive, was estimated to be 906 lbs. The petrified bones, themselves, reportedly weighed 304 1/4 lbs.
No follow-up institution was named to confirm or archive the finds.
POSSIBLE LEADS & FOLLOW-UP
- Jenny Berg of the St. Cloud Times published an e-article (Jan 14, 2016) investigating the original report. Berg's report covers a rumor of a man covertly shipping the skeletal remains off on a night train, in exchange for a large disclosed sum of money (allegedly received from P.T. Barnum's people).
The Somerset Press: Feb. 19, 1875 (Somerset, Ohio)
Bryan, William Smith. A History of the Pioneer Families of Missouri, 1876 (p.101). Lucas Brothers, Columbia, MO.
THE INDIAN WAR
...Lieutenant Riggs served with distinction during the remainder of the war, and afterward became a prominent citizen of Lincoln county. He was the first County Judge of that county, and was subsequently elected Sheriff. During the Black Hawk war he was commissioned Brigadier-General of Volunteers, and afterward served as Brigadier-General of militia. He was a daring, but cautious and prudent officer, and if the unfortunate Callaway had listened to his advice, his life and the lives of his men would have been spared.
It is not known for certain whether any of the Indians were killed in this battle or not, but one of their chiefs, named Keokuk, a man of some distinction, was wounded, and died shortly after. He was buried in the prairie, one and one-half mile northeast of the present town of Wellsville, in Montgomery county. In 1826 his remains were taken up by Dr. Bryan and several other gentlemen, and upon his breast was found a large silver medal, containing his name, rank, etc. He was evidently a giant in stature, for the jaw bone, which, with several other bones of the body, are still preserved by Mrs. Dr. Peery, of Montgomery county, will fit over the face of the largest sized man...
Collins, Lewis. History of Kentucky, 1877 (p.666). Collins & Co. Covington, KY
A Giant. -- Early in 1872, in prospecting for coal in Ohio county, about a mile from Rockport, the complete skeleton of a human body of gigantic size was found, 6 feet below the surface. The lower jaw-bone, when fitted over the lower portion of a man's face in the party of explorers, completely covered it; the thigh bone, from the hip-bone to the knee, was 42 inches long, and the fore-arm bone from writst to elbow measured 22 inches. Th would indicate a giant over 10 feet high.
The Compass and Chain used in laying out the city of Louisville, at some time before 1800 (it was first laid out, Aug. 1, 1773), was, in 1871, in possession of Col. Quintus C. Shanks, of Hartford, Ohio county. It was formerly owned by Win. Peyton, who in early days made many surveys in company with James Shanks, the father of Col. S. The story of all its wanderings in detail would be thrilling, and rescue much local history that is lost forever...
Bliss, Frank E. (1879). The Life of Hon. William E. Cody, Known As Buffalo Bill, The Famous Hunter, Scout, and Guide (p. 266-267). Hartford, Conn.
A DESPERATE FIGHT
...General Carr having obtained a leave of absence, Colonel Royal was given the command of an expedition that was ordered to go out after the Indians, and in a few days—after having rested a couple of weeks—we set out for the Republican; having learned that there were plenty of Indians in that section of the country. At Frenchman's Fork we discovered an Indian village, but did not surprise it, for its people had noticed us approaching, and were retreating when we reached their camping-place. We chased them down the stream, and they finally turned to the left, went north, and crossed the South Platte river five miles above Ogallala. We pushed rapidly after them, following them across the North Platte and on through the sand-hills towards the Niobrara; but as they were making much better time than we, the pursuit was abandoned.
While we were in the sand-hills, scouting the Niobrara country, the Pawnee Indians brought into camp, one night, some very large bones, one of which a surgeon of the expedition pronounced to be the thigh-bone of a human being. The Indians claimed that the bones they had found were those of a person belonging to a race of people who a long time ago lived in this country. That there was once a race of men on the earth whose size was about three times that of an ordinary man, and they were so swift and powerful that they could run along-side of a buffalo, and taking the animal in one arm could tear off a leg and eat the meat as they walked. These giants denied the existence of a Great Spirit, and when they heard the thunder or saw the lightning they laughed at it and said that they were greater than either. This so displeased the Great Spirit that he caused a great rain-storm to come, and the water kept rising higher and higher so that it drove those proud and conceited giants from the low grounds to the hills, and thence to the mountains, but at last even the mountain tops were submerged, and then those mammoth men were all drowned. After the flood had subsided, the Great Spirit came to the conclusion that he had made man too large and powerful, and that he would therefore correct the mistake by creating a race of men of smaller size and less strength. This is the reason, say the Indians, that modern men are small and not like the giants of old, and they claim that this story is a matter of Indian history, which has been handed down among them from time immemorial.
As we had no wagons with us at the time this large and heavy bone was found, we were obliged to leave it.
The New York Times: May, 25, 1882
Smith, Erminnie A. (1883). Myths of the Iroquois (p.59). Smithsonian Institution -- Bureau of Ethnology
Chapter I. GODS AND OTHER SUPERNATURAL BEINGS
EXTERMINATION OF THE STONE GIANTS.
Related by Mr. O'BEILLE BEILLE, grandson of Cornplanter.
The stone giants, who principally inhabited the far West, resolved to come East and exterminate the Indians. A party of Senecas, just starting out on the war-path, were warned of their impending danger and were bidden to accept the challenge to fight the stone giants and appoint a time and place. This they did. At the appointed time the giants appeared at the place, which was near a great gulf. Then there came a mighty wind from the west which precipitated the whole race of giants down into the abyss, from which they were never able to extricate themselves, and the God of the West Wind was ever after held in reverence by the Senecas.
Fort Worth Daily Gazette: Aug. 15, 1883 (Ft. Worth, Texas)
Democratic Northwest: Aug. 23, 1883 (Napoleon, Ohio)
The Sun: Sep. 26, 1883 (Fayetteville, North Carolina)
Summary: (in progress)
POSSIBLE LEADS & FOLLOW-UP
The Benton Weekly Record: Sep. 15th, 1883 (Benton, Montana)
The Butler Weekly Times: Oct. 10, 1883 (Butler, Missouri)
Summary: (in progress)
POSSIBLE LEADS & FOLLOW-UP
The New York Times: Nov. 12, 1883
The American Antiquarian and Oriental Journal. Vol. 9-10 (1887-1888) (p.176). Harvard University.
EFFIGY MOUNDS ON THE KICKAPOO RIVER
...The mounds in the south and central part of this county (Crawford) I think you have examined, or a part of them at least, so it will not be necessary for me to go into any specific details, further than I think I will tell you of the exhuming of a giant's skeleton at Lynxville, a few years ago, in this county. In the year of 1864, parties were engaged in excavating in the east bank of the Mississippi River, for the foundation of a warehouse. At a depth of 14 feet below the surface, the workmen came upon the skeleton of a giant, in a tolerable good state of preservation, the skeleton was 8-feet 2 inches in length and measured 2 feet 2 inches across the pelvis or from the out edge of the hip joint to hip joint. A quantity of bears claws, and claws of some other animals apparently, worn as a necklace, were found. They had holes drilled through them and had been strung. The bowl of a pipe, finely polished and of fine workmanship, made of obsidian, was also found with the skeleton.
The pipe bowl was finely wrought in to the figure of an animal (apparently a lynx). There were two layers of human bones above him, the first some 4 feet below the surface, the next layer some 8 feet from the surface. This shows that a very long period of time must have elapsed since the giant was interred. We have no reason to suppose that the giant was buried at first 14 feet below the surface. I have this theory about his interment that he was buried 6 feet below the then surface of the ground, that by the gradual disintegration of the point of rocks some 60 yards distant and the gradual drifting of the sand down the slope from the point of rocks the growth and decay of vegetation had kept accumulating over his remains in the course of ages, until we have tolerable good reasons to think that 1,000 years at least have rolled away since his burial.
At another point, about six miles below where this skeleton was found, at the mouth of Sioux Coulee, on Sec. 18, T. 8, N. R. 6, W, one of the agents or employees of the Smithsonian Institute, at Washington, exhumed the remains of another skeleton the size of which was calculated to be about 9 feet in length. Some copper implements were found with this, a copper breast plate hatchet amongst them.
About 3 miles N.E. of where this first giant remains were discovered was the huge figure of a man lying on his back, the limbs, head and all were perfect in form. This figure was about 8 rods in length some 30 years ago when I first discovered it, but the plow I think has nearly destroyed the last trace of it or nearly leveled it with the natural surface...
The New York Times: Oct. 3, 1892
The New York Times: Dec. 20, 1897
The New York Times: Feb. 11, 1902
Henry W. Shoemaker (1912). Tales of the Bald Eagle Mountains in Central Pennsylvania (p. 208-211). The Bright Printing Company, Reading, PA
Chapter XI. THE GIANTESS (Story of McElhattan Mountain)
"When the great flood of St. Patrick's Day, 1865, laid bare, in the bed of McElhattan Creek, the gigantic statue of a giantess carved out of black flint, the old settlers, and the few Indians who remained at Nichol's Run, predicted a series of disasters to the neighborhood...the figure was carved from the stone during the last years of the sixteenth century. When it was uncovered by the flood of 1865, the accounts which appeared in the Clinton County newspapers heralded it as a relic of remote antiquity, and it would have been generally accepted as such, had it not been for the "old timers" who knew the legend of its comparatively recent origin. For once in its career it was only a seven days wonder. The paragraphs in the papers attracted a few antiquarians to the scene and the native mountaineers marvelled and brought their families, but the closing events of the Civil War and Lincoln's assassination soon overshadowed it.
A freshet in September broke the drift pile which had diverted the stream from its original course, and the "Giantess of McElhattan", as she was called, was covered once more by the rushing current. For a few weeks those who passed over a prostrate beech tree which served as a footbridge nearby, could see the angry, revengeful features of the giantess peering up at them through the clear water, but sand, and pebbles and branches of trees drifted across it, and were giving it a brand new shroud. With the Spring of the next year, the face was entirely covered, and only the sable outlines of the breasts were reflected through the limpid depths. In another year these were covered, and with it went the last memory of the Giantess, to rest until Destiny sends her forth again..."
The New Age Magazine. Vol. 18 (1913) (p. 206-207). University of Michigan.
WHITE RIVER TRAILS
...While the historical features of the Ozarks held our attention, by far the most fascinating discovery was one made by an aged recluse and naturalist who for ten years had lived in a shelter cave near where we camped. "Dad" Riggins spent much of his time digging in the ashes which form the floor of many of these caves. At a depth of more than three feet he found the remains of several giant human skeletons, including an almost perfect skull which differed in many particulars from a modern specimen. When partly joined the largest skeleton was almost ten feet tall.
"Dad" Riggins also showed us hieroglyphics covering the Palisades, thought to be thousands of years old. In places stalagmites had formed since the prehistoric record was started and had wiped it out in spots. We sat on the Indian council rocks under a huge canopy of limestone. The seats were worn smooth by centuries of friction with Indian buckskin. In the valley below we visited the primeval Indian workshop, where the arrow-heads of commerce were fashioned out of the chert and flint which cover the mountains of that region.
Though exploring took up much of our time we spent many a day fishing for bass and trout in the clear, swift waters of the White and War Eagle rivers...
The New York Times: May 4, 1908
The New York Times: July 14, 1916
The New York Times: March 17, 1924